Eurasian Kurgan Database – a citizen science tool for conserving grasslands on historical sites

Balázs Deák, Csaba Albert Tóth, Ádám Bede, Iva Apostolova, Tatyana M. Bragina, Ferenc Báthori, Miklós Bán

Povzetek

Eurasian steppes have an essential role in conserving biodiversity, but due to the huge habitat loss in the past centuries they are often preserved only in small refuges. Among such refuges are the ancient steppic burial mounds (the so called ‘kurgans’) which have a high cultural and historical importance and are also essential sites of nature conservation. Despite their high number (approximately half million) and conservational importance there is a huge lack of knowledge on the locality and conservational state of the kurgans in most regions of Eurasia. To fill this knowledge gap, we built a public database which allows to record and query basic information on their cultural values and factors (such as land cover type, threatening factors, cover of woody species) that might serve as a basis for their effective conservation. The database provides a transparent, public and easy-to-use source for conservation managers and landscape planners focussed on grassland conservation. In addition, it also provides background information for other associate disciplines and public agencies dealing with the protection of cultural heritage.

Ključne besede

biodiversity; burial mound (= kurgan); cultural heritage; dry grassland; habitat-island; historical heritage; steppe

Celotno besedilo:

PDF (English)

Literatura

Anthony, D. W. 2010: Horse, the Wheel and Language. How Bronze-Age riders from the Eurasian steppes shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press, Princeton–Oxford, 568 pp.

Bán, M., Végvári, Z. & Bérces, S. 2014: An open framework for biodiversity databases. bioRxiv. 010405. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/01040

Bastow, R. & Leonelli, S. 2010: Sustainable digital infrastructure. EMBO Reports 11(10): 730–734. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/embor.2010.145

Bede, Á., Salisbury, R. B., Csathó, A. I., Czukor, P., Páll, D. G., Szilágyi, G. & Sümegi, P. 2015: Report of the complex geoarcheological survey at the Ecse-halom kurgan in Hortobágy, Hungary. Central European Geology 58(3): 268–289. doi: https://doi.org/10.1556/24.58.2015.3.5

Bhagwat, S. & Rutte, C. 2006: Sacred groves: potential for biodiversity management. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4(10): 519–524. doi: https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2006)4[519:SGPFBM]2.0.CO;2

Biró, M., Bölöni, J. & Molnár, Zs. 2018: Use of long-term data to evaluate loss and endangerment status of Natura 2000 habitats and effects of protected areas. Conservation biology 32(3): 660–671. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13038

Davis-Kimball, J., Murphy, E.M., Koryakova, L. & Yablonksy, L.T. eds. 2000: Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age. BAR International Series 890. Archaeopress, Oxford, 324 pp.

Deák, B., Tóthmérész, B., Valkó, O., Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B., Bragina, T. M., Moysiyenko, I. I., Bragina, T. M., Apostolova, I., Dembicz, I., Bykov, N. I. & Török, P. 2016a: Cultural monuments and nature conservation: The role of kurgans in maintaining steppe vegetation. Biodiversity and Conservation 25(12): 2473–2490. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1081-2

Deák, B., Valkó, O., Török, P. & Tóthmérész, B. 2016b: Factors threatening grassland specialist plants – A multi-proxy study on the vegetation of isolated grasslands. Biological Conservation 204: 255–262. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.10.023

Deák, B., Tölgyesi, Cs., Kelemen, A., Bátori, Z., Gallé, R., Bragina, T. M., Abil, Y. A. & Valkó, O. 2017: Vegetation of steppic cultural heritage sites in Kazakhstan – Effects of micro-habitats and grazing intensity. Plant Ecology and Diversity 10(5-6): 509–520. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/17550874.2018.1430871

Deák, B., Valkó, O., Török, P., Kelemen, A., Bede, Á., Csathó, A. I. & Tóthmérész, B. 2018: Landscape and habitat filters jointly drive richness and abundance of specialist plants in terrestrial habitat islands. Landscape Ecology 33(7): 1117–1132. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-018-0660-x

Deák, B. 2019: Eurasian Kurgan Database. doi: https://doi.org/10.18426/obm.3mbbectm2bmg

Dembicz, I., Moysiyenko, I. I., Shaposhnikova, A., Vynokurov, D.,Kozub, L. & Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B. 2016: Isolation and patch size drive specialist plant species density within steppe islands: A case study of kurgans in southern Ukraine. Biodiversity and Conservation 25(12): 2289–2307. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1077-y

Dembicz, I., Szczeparska, L., Moysiyenko, I. I. & Wódkiewicz, M. 2018: High genetic diversity in fragmented Iris pumila L. populations in Ukrainian steppe enclaves. Basic and Applied Ecology 28: 37–47. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.baae.2018.02.009

Demkin, V. A., Klepikov, V. M., Udaltsov, S. N., Demkina, T. S., Eltsov, M. V. & Khomutova, T. E. 2014: New aspects of natural science studies of archaeological burial monuments (kurgans) in the southern Russian steppes. Journal of Archaeological Science 42: 241–249. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2013.10.031

Elias, D., Hölzel, N. & Tischew, S. 2018: Goat paddock grazing improves the conservation status of shrub-encroached dry grasslands. Tuexenia 38: 215–233. doi: https://doi.org/10.14471/2018.38.017

Erdős, L., Bátori, Z., Bede-Fazekas, Á., Biró, M., Darányi, N., Magnes, M., Pásztor, L., Sengl, P., Szitár, K., Tölgyesi, Cs. & Kröel-Dulay, Gy. 2019: Trends in species composition and richness along a centre-toperiphery gradient in forest-steppes of the southern Carpathian Basin. Tuexenia 39: (accepted paper)

Frascaroli, F., Bhagwat, S., Guarino, R., Chiarucci, A. & Schmid, B. 2016: Shrines in Central Italy conserve plant diversity and large trees. Ambio 45(4): 468–479. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-015-0738-5

Gazol, A., Tamme, R., Takkis, K., Kasari, L., Saar, L., Helm, A. & Pärtel, M. 2012: Landscape and small-scale determinants of grassland species diversity: Direct and indirect influences. Ecography 35(10): 944–951. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2012.07627.x

Gimbutas, M. 2000: Das ende Alteuropas. Der Einfall von Steppennomaden aus Südrussland und die Indogermanisierung Mitteleuropas. Archaeolingua, Budapest, 135 pp.

Godó, L., Tóthmérész, B., Valkó, O., Tóth, K., Radócz, S., Kiss, R., Kelemen, A., Török, P., Švamberková, E. & Deák, B. 2018: Ecosystem engineering by foxes is mediated by the landscape context – A case study from steppic burial mounds. Ecology and Evolution 8(14): 7044–7054. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4224

Gołębiowska-Tobiasz, A. 2013: Monumental polovtsian ptatues in Eastern Europe: the archaeology, conservation and protection. Versita Discipline: History, Archaeology. Versita, London, 196 pp.

Gray, S., Jordan, R., Crall, A., Newman, G., Hmelo-Silver, C., Huang, J., Novak, W., Mellor, D., Frensley, T., Prysby, M. & Singer, A. 2016. Combining participatory modelling and citizen science to support volunteer conservation action. Biological Conservation 208: 76–86. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2016.07.037

Lisetskii, F. N., Goleusov, V. P., Moysiyenko, I. I. & Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B. 2014: Microzonal distribution of soils and plants along the catenas of mound structures. Contemporary Problems of Ecology 7(3): 282–293. doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1995425514030111

Lisetskii, F. N., Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B. & Moysiyenko, I. I. 2016a: Flora differentiation among local ecotypes in the transzonal study of forest-steppe and steppe mounds. Biology Bulletin 43(2): 169–176. doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062359016010106

Lisetskii, F. N., Smekalova, T. N. & Marinina, O. A. 2016b: Biogeochemical features of fallow lands in the steppe zone. Contemporary Problems of Ecology 9(3): 366–375. doi: https://doi.org/10.1134/S1995425516030094

Löki, V., Molnár V., A., Süveges, K., Heimeier, H., Takács, A., Nagy, T., Fekete, R., Lovas-Kiss, Á., Kreutz, K. C. A. J., Sramkó, G. & Tökölyi, J. 2019a: Predictors of conservation value of Turkish cemeteries: a case study using orchids. Landscape and Urban Planning 186: 36–44. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2019.02.016

Löki, V., Deák, B., Lukács, A. B., Molnár V., A. 2019b: Biodiversity potential of burial places–a review on the flora and fauna of cemeteries and churchyards. Global Ecology and Conservation, e00614. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2019.e00614

Molnár V., A., Nagy, T., Löki, V., Süveges, K., Takács, A., Bódis, J. & Jácint, T. 2017: Turkish graveyards as refuges for orchids against tuber harvest. Ecology and Evolution 7(24): 11257–11264. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3562

Molnár V., A., Mészáros, A., Csathó, A. I., Balogh, G., Takács, A., Löki, V., Lovas-Kiss, Á, Tökölyi, J., Somlyay, L. & Bauer, N. 2018: Distribution and seed production of the rare, dry grassland specialist Sternbergia colchiciflora (Amaryllidaceae) in Pannonian cemeteries. Tuexenia 38: 371–384. doi: https://doi.org/10.14471/2018.38.015

Moysiyenko, I., Zachwatowicz, M., Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B. & Jabłońska, E. 2014: Kurgans help to protect endangered steppe species in the Pontic grass steppe zone, Ukraine. Wulfenia 21: 83–94.

Parzinger, H. 2017: Burial mounds of Scythian elites in the Eurasian steppe: New discoveries. Journal of the British Academy 5: 331–355. doi: https://doi.org/10.5871/jba/005.331

Pető, Á. & Barczi A. eds. (2011): Kurgan Studies. An environmental and archaeological multiproxy study of burial mounds in the Eurasian steppe zone. British Archaeological Reports International Series 2238. Archaeopress, Oxford. 350 pp.

Rowińska,A., Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B. & Moysiyenko, I. I. 2010: Kurhany – dziedzictwo kultury w krajobrazie antropogenicznym strefy stepów i lasostepu – oczami archeologa i botanika [Kurgans from the archeologist and botanist view – cultural heritage in the stepp and

forest stepp region]. Wiadomości Botaniczne 54: 7–20. [in Polish]

Sopotlieva, D., Velev, N., Tsvetkova, N., Vassilev, V. & Apostolova, I. 2018: Ecosystem condition assessment of semi-natural grasslands outside the Natura 2000 network in Bulgaria, using vegetation data. Tuexenia 38: 385–404. doi: https://doi.org/10.14471/2018.38.012

Squires V. R., Dengler J., Hua L., Feng H. (eds.) 2018: Grasslands of the World: Diversity, Management and Conservation. CRC Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, 421 pp.

Stokstad, E. 2010: Despite progress, biodiversity declines. Science 329(5997): 1272–1273. doi: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.329.5997.1272

Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B., Moysiyenko, I., Zachwatowicz, M. & Jabłońska, E. 2011: The value and need for protection of kurgan flora in the anthropogenic landscape of steppe zone in Ukraine. Plant Biosystems 145(3): 638–653. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2011.601335

Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B. & Moysiyenko I. I. 2014: Indicative role of the flora of kurgans in the ‘Wild Field’ (southern Ukraine). Monitoring Środowiska Przyrodniczego 15: 75–83.

Szabó, Sz., Novák, T. & Elek, Z. 2012: Distance models in ecological network management: A case study of patch connectivity in a grassland network. Journal for Nature Conservation 20(5):

Szabó, A. & Ruprecht, E. 2018: Restoration possibilities of dry grasslands afforested by pine: the role of seed bank and remnant vegetation. Tuexenia 38: 405–418. doi: https://doi.

org/10.14471/2018.38.013

Szilágyi, G., Sümegi, P., Molnár, D. & Sávai, S. 2013: Mollusc-based paleoecological investigations of the Late Copper – Early Bronze Age earth mounds (kurgans) on the Great Hungarian Plain. Open Geosciences 5: 465–479. doi: https://doi.org/10.2478/s13533-012-

-4

Tóth, Cs. A., Pethe, M. & Hatházi, Á. 2014: The application of earth science-based analyses on a twin-kurgan in Northern Hungary. Carpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences 9(1): 19–20.

Tóth, Cs. A., Rákóczi, A. & Tóth, S. 2018: Protection of the state of prehistoric mounds in Hungary: law as a conservation measure. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites 20(3): 113–142. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13505033.2018.1486125

Valkó, O., Zmihorski, M., Biurrun, I., Loos, J., Labadessa, R., Venn, S. 2016: Ecology and conservation of steppes and semi-natural grasslands. Hacquetia 15: 5–14.

Valkó, O., Venn, S., Zmihorski, M., Biurrun, I., Labadessa, R., Loos, J. 2018a: The challenge of abandonment for the sustainable management of Palaearctic natural and semi-natural grasslands. Hacquetia 17: 5–16. doi:10.1515/hacq-2017-0018

Valkó, O., Tóth, K., Kelemen, A., Miglécz, T., Sonkoly, J., Tóthmérész, B., Török, P. & Deák, B. 2018b: Cultural heritage and biodiversity conservation – Plant introduction and practical restoration on ancient burial mounds. Nature Conservation 24: 65–80. doi: https://doi.org/10.3897/natureconservation.24.20019

Verschuuren, B., Wild, R., McNeeley, J. & Oviedo, G. (eds.) 2010: Sacred Natural Sites: Conserving Nature and Culture. Earthscan, London, 310 pp.

Wódkiewicz, M., Dembicz, I. & Moysiyenko, I. I. 2016: The value of small habitat islands for the conservation of genetic variability in a steppe grass species. Acta Oecologica 76: 22–30. doi: https://doi. org/10.1016/j.actao.2016.08.001




Avtorske pravice (c) 2019 Hacquetia

##submission.license.cc.by-nc-nd4.footer##

Hacquetia   http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/hacq   urban@zrc-sazu.si

Za nemoteno delovanje spletna stran uporablja piškotek za čas trajanja seje. Po končani seje se piškotek izbriše.