An integrated SWOT–extended PIPRECIA model for identifying key determinants of tourism development: The case of Serbia




extended PIPRECIA method, SWOT, Serbia, strategy, tourism


This paper proposes a new integrated model based on SWOT and extended PIvot Pairwise RElative Criteria Importance Assessment (PIPRECIA) that offers a systematic approach to strategic planning in tourism. The applicability of the proposed integrated model is demonstrated through a case study defining the main determinants of tourism development in Serbia. The result emphasizes the strategy Improving the organization, management, and enhancement of tourism development as the highest priority for implementation. The model facilitates decision-making in tourism, and its key advantages are its suitability for application in group decision-making and its simplicity.


Download data is not yet available.


Abadi, F. A., Sahebi, I. G., Arab, A., Alavi, A., Karachi, H. 2018: Application of best-worst method in evaluation of medical tourism development strategy. Decision Science Letters 7-1. DOI:

Ajmera, P. 2017: Ranking the strategies for Indian medical tourism sector through the integration of SWOT analysis and TOPSIS method. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance 30-8. DOI:

Akbulak, C., Cengiz, T. 2014: Determining ecotourism strategies using A’WOT hybrid method: Case study of Troia Historical National Park, Çanakkale, Turkey. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 21-4. DOI:

Akincilar, A., Dagdeviren, M. 2014: A hybrid multi-criteria decision making model to evaluate hotel websites. International Journal of Hospitality Management 36. DOI:

Aksoy, S., Ozbuk, M. Y. 2017: Multiple criteria decision making in hotel location: does it relate to postpurchase consumer evaluations? Tourism Management Perspectives 22. DOI:

Aliani, H., Kafaky, S. B., Saffari, A., Monavari, S. M. 2017: Land evaluation for ecotourism development—An integrated approach based on FUZZY, WLC and ANP methods. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 14-9. DOI:

Armenski, T., Dwyer, L., Pavluković, V. 2018: Destination competitiveness: Public and private sector tourism management in Serbia. Journal of Travel Research 57-3. DOI:

Arsić, S., Nikolić, D., Živković, Ž. 2017: Hybrid SWOT-ANP-FANP model for prioritization strategies of sustainable development of ecotourism in National Park Djerdap, Serbia. Forest Policy and Economics 80. DOI:

Atanassov, K. T. 1986: Intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Fuzzy Sets and Systems 20-1. DOI:

Blešić, I., Pivac, T., Đorđević, J., Stamenković, I., Janićević, S. 2014: Cultural events as part of cultural tourism development. Case study: Sombor and Apatin (Serbia). Acta geographica Slovenica 54-2. DOI:

Bottero, M., D’Alpaos, C., Marello, A. 2020: An application of the a’WOT analysis for the management of cultural heritage assets: The case of the historical farmhouses in the Aglié Castle (Turin). Sustainability 12-3. DOI:

Božić, S., Tomić, N. 2016: Developing the cultural route evaluation model (CREM) and its application on the Trail of Roman Emperors, Serbia. Tourism Management Perspectives 17. DOI:

Büyüközkan, G., Mukul, E., Kongar, E. 2021: Health tourism strategy selection via SWOT analysis and integrated hesitant fuzzy linguistic AHP-MABAC approach. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 74. DOI:

Cetin, M. 2015: Evaluation of the sustainable tourism potential of a protected area for landscape planning: A case study of the ancient city of Pompeipolis in Kastamonu. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 22-6. DOI:

Cetin, M., Zeren, I., Sevik, H., Cakir, C., Akpinar, H. 2018: A study on the determination of the natural park’s sustainable tourism potential. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 190. DOI:

Cheng, Q., Su, B., Tan, J. 2013: Developing an evaluation index system for low-carbon tourist attractions in China – a case study examining the Xixi wetland. Tourism Management 36. DOI:

Chou, T. Y., Hsu, C. L., Chen, M. C. 2008: A fuzzy multi-criteria decision model for international tourist hotels location selection. International Journal of Hospitality Management 27-2. DOI:

Đalić, I., Ateljević, J., Stević, Ž., Terzić, S. 2020a: An integrated SWOT – fuzzy PIPRECIA model for analysis of competitiveness in order to improve logistics performances. Facta Universitatis, Series: Mechanical Engineering 18-3. DOI:

Đalić, I., Stević, Ž., Karamasa, C., Puška, A. 2020b: A novel integrated fuzzy PIPRECIA – interval rough saw model: green supplier selection. Decision Making: Applications in Management and Engineering 3-1. DOI:

Demir, S., Esbah, H., Akgün, A. A. 2016: Quantitative SWOT analysis for prioritizing ecotourism – planning decisions in protected areas: Igneada case. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 23-5. DOI:

Deng, J. L. 1982: Control problems of grey systems. Systems and Control Letters 1-5. DOI:

Dimitrovski, D. D., Todorović, A. T., Valjarević, A. D. 2012: Rural tourism and regional development: case study of development of rural tourism in the region of Gruža, Serbia. Procedia Environmental Sciences 14. DOI:

Dragićević, V., Besermenji, S., Pivac, T., Ivkov-Džigurski, A., Košić, K. 2013: Evaluation of tourist attractiveness and museum management in Sombor and Apatin (Serbia). Acta geographica Slovenica 53-2. DOI:

Dragićević, V., Jovičić, D., Blešić, I., Stankov, U., Bošković, D. 2012: Business tourism destination competitiveness: A case of Vojvodina Province (Serbia). Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja 25-2. DOI:

Gavade, R. K. 2014: Multi-Criteria Decision Making: An overview of different selection problems and methods. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies 5-4.

Ghazinoory, S., Abdi, M., Azadegan-Mehr, M. 2011: SWOT methodology: A state-of-the-art review for the past, a framework for the future. Journal of Business Economics and Management 12-1. DOI:

Gómez-Vega, M., Picazo-Tadeo, A. J. 2019: Ranking world tourist destinations with a composite indicator of competitiveness: To weigh or not to weigh? Tourism Management 72. DOI:

Gürel, E., Tat, M. 2017: SWOT analysis: A theoretical review. Journal of International Social Research 10-51. DOI:

Helms, M. M., Nixon, J. 2010: Exploring SWOT analysis – where are we now? A review of academic research from the last decade. Journal of Strategy and Management 3-3. DOI:

Hill, T., Westbrook, R. 1997: SWOT analysis: it's time for a product recall. Long Range Planning 30-1. DOI:

Hu, Y. C. 2009: Fuzzy multiple-criteria decision making in the determination of critical criteria for assessing service quality of travel websites. Expert Systems with Applications 36-3. DOI:

Huang, J. H., Peng, K. H. 2012: Fuzzy Rasch model in TOPSIS: A new approach for generating fuzzy numbers to assess the competitiveness of the tourism industries in Asian countries. Tourism Management 33-2. DOI:

Jiskani, I. M., Shah, S. A. A., Qingxiang, C., Zhou, W., Lu, X. 2020: A multi-criteria based SWOT analysis of sustainable planning for mining and mineral industry in Pakistan. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 13. DOI:

Kajanus, M., Kangas, J., Kurttila, M. 2004: The use of value focused thinking and the A’WOT hybrid method in tourism management. Tourism Management 25-4. DOI:

Kajanus, M., Leskinen, P., Kurttila, M., Kangas, J. 2012: Making use of MCDS methods in SWOT analysis—Lessons learnt in strategic natural resources management. Forest Policy and Economics 20. DOI:

Karabasevic, D., Popovic, G., Stanujkic, D., Maksimovic, M., Sava, C. 2019: An approach for hotel type selection based on the single-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. International Review 2019-1,2.

Keršuliene, V., Zavadskas, E. K., Turskis, Z. 2010: Selection of rational dispute resolution method by applying new stepwise weight assessment ratio analysis (SWARA). Journal of Business Economics and Management 11-2. DOI:

Khan, M. I. 2018: Evaluating the strategies of compressed natural gas industry using an integrated SWOT and MCDM approach. Journal of Cleaner Production 172. DOI:

Kişi, N. 2019: A strategic approach to sustainable tourism development using the A’WOT hybrid method: A case study of Zonguldak, Turkey. Sustainability 11-4. DOI:

Košić, K., Pivac, T., Romelić, J., Lazić, L., Stojanović, V. 2011: Characteristics of thermal–mineral waters in Backa region (Vojvodina) and their exploitation in spa tourism. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15-1. DOI:

Kurttila, M., Pesonen, M., Kangas, J., Kajanus, M. 2000: Utilizing the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in SWOT analysis—A hybrid method and its application to a forest-certification case. Forest Policy and Economics 1-1. DOI:

Liu, C. H., Tzeng, G. H., Lee, M. H. 2012: Improving tourism policy implementation – the use of hybrid MCDM models. Tourism Management 33-2. DOI:

Memiş, S., Demir, E., Karamaşa, Ç., Korucuk, S. 2020: Prioritization of road transportation risks: An application in Giresun province. Operational Research in Engineering Sciences: Theory and Applications 3-2.

Michailidou, A. V., Vlachokostas, C., Moussiopoulos, Ν. 2016: Interactions between climate change and the tourism sector: multiple-criteria decision analysis to assess mitigation and adaptation options in tourism areas. Tourism Management 55. DOI:

Michalena, E., Hills, J., Amat, J. P. 2009: Developing sustainable tourism, using a multicriteria analysis on renewable energy in Mediterranean Islands. Energy for Sustainable Development 13-2. DOI:

Mimović, P., Kocić, M., Milanović, M. 2012: A’WOT model in selecting the optimal tourism development strategy in Vrnjacka Banja. Teme 36-2.

Morteza, Z., Reza, F. M., Seddiq, M. M., Sharareh, P., Jamal, G. 2016: Selection of the optimal tourism site using the ANP and fuzzy TOPSIS in the framework of Integrated Coastal Zone Management: A case of Qeshm Island. Ocean and Coastal Management 130. DOI:

Mulec, I., Wise, N. 2013: Indicating the competitiveness of Serbia's Vojvodina Region as an emerging tourism destination. Tourism Management Perspectives 8. DOI:

Nikolić, Đ., Spasić, J., Živković, Ž., Đorđević, P., Mihajlović, I., Kangas, J. 2015: SWOT-AHP model for prioritization of strategies of the resort Stara Planina. Serbian Journal of Management 10-2.

Pavluković, V., Stankov, U., Arsenović, D. 2020: Social impacts of music festivals: A comparative study of Sziget (Hungary) and Exit (Serbia). Acta geographica Slovenica 60-1. DOI:

Petrović, M. D., Vujko, A., Gajić, T., Vuković, D. B., Radovanović, M., Jovanović, J. M., Vuković, N. 2018: Tourism as an approach to sustainable rural development in post-socialist countries: A comparative study of Serbia and Slovenia. Sustainability 10-1. DOI:

Popović, G., Đorđević, B., Milanović, D. 2019: Multiple criteria approach in the mining method selection. Industrija 47-4. DOI:

Popović, G., Mihajlović, D. 2018: An MCDM approach to tourism projects evaluation: The Upper Danube Basin case. Modern Management Tools and Economy of Tourism Sector in Present Era, 3rd International Thematic Monograph - Thematic Proceedings. Ohrid. DOI:

Popović, G., Milovanović, G., Stanujkić, D. 2018: Prioritization of strategies for tourism development by applying a SWOT-SWARA analysis: The case of Sokobanja Spa. Teme 42-3. DOI:

Popovic, G., Stanujkic, D., Karabasevic, D. 2019: A framework for the evaluation of hotel property development projects. International Journal of Strategic Property Management 23-2. DOI:

Popovic, G., Stanujkic, D., Karabasevic, D., Maksimovic, M., Sava, C. 2019: Multiple criteria approach in the ranking of the sustainable indicators for cultural heritage sites. Quaestus 14.

Puška, A., Stojanović, I., Maksimović, A. 2019: Evaluation of sustainable rural tourism potential in Brcko district of Bosnia and Herzegovina using multi-criteria analysis. Operational Research in Engineering Sciences: Theory and Applications 2-2. DOI:

Reihanian, A., Mahmood, N. Z. B., Kahrom, E., Hin, T. W. 2012: Sustainable tourism development strategy by SWOT analysis: Boujagh National Park, Iran. Tourism Management Perspectives 4. DOI:

Rozman, Č., Potočnik, M., Pažek, K., Borec, A., Majkovič, D., Bohanec, M. 2009: A multi-criteria assessment of tourist farm service quality. Tourism Management 30-5. DOI:

Saaty, T. L. 1980: The analytic hierarchy process. New York.

Sariisik, M., Turkay, O., Akova, O. 2011: How to manage yacht tourism in Turkey: A SWOT analysis and related strategies. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences 24. DOI:

Smarandache, F. 2005: Neutrosophic set – a generalization of the intuitionistic fuzzy set. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 24-3.

Stanujkic, D., Karabasevic, D., Sava, C. 2018: An application of the PIPRECIA and WS PLP methods for evaluating website quality in hotel industry. Quaestus 12.

Stanujkic, D., Karabasevic, D., Zavadskas, E. K., Smarandache, F., Cavallaro, F. 2019: An approach to determining customer satisfaction in traditional Serbian restaurants. Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Issues 6-3. DOI:

Stanujkic, D., Zavadskas, E. K., Karabasevic, D., Smarandache, F., Turskis, Z. 2017a: The use of the pivot pairwise relative criteria importance assessment method for determining the weights of criteria. Romanian Journal of Economic Forecasting 20-4.

Stanujkic, D., Zavadskas, E. K., Karabasevic, D., Urosevic, S., Maksimovic, M. 2017b: An approach for evaluating website quality in hotel industry based on triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Informatica 28-4.

Stanujkic, D., Zavadskas, E. K., Liu, S., Karabasevic, D., Popovic, G. 2017c: Improved OCRA method based on the use of interval grey numbers. Journal of Grey System 29-4.

Stanujkic, D., Zavadskas, E. K., Tamošaitienė, J. 2015: An approach to measuring website quality in the rural tourism industry based on Atanassov intuitionistic fuzzy sets. E+M Ekonomie a Management 18-4. DOI:

Stević, Ž., Stjepanović, Ž., Božičković, Z., Das, D. K., Stanujkić, D. 2018: Assessment of conditions for implementing information technology in a warehouse system: A novel fuzzy PIPRECIA method. Symmetry 10-11. DOI:

Stojčić, M., Zavadskas, E. K., Pamučar, D., Stević, Ž., Mardani, A. 2019: Application of MCDM methods in sustainability engineering: A literature review 2008–2018. Symmetry 11-3. DOI:

Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Serbia 2016–2025. Ministry of Trade, Tourism and Telecommunications of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, 2016.

Todorović, M., Bjeljac, Ž. 2009: Rural tourism in Serbia as a concept of development in undeveloped regions. Acta geographica Slovenica 49-2. DOI:

Tseng, M. L. 2011: Using hybrid MCDM to evaluate the service quality expectation in linguistic preference. Applied Soft Computing 11-8. DOI:

Vasiljević, D. A., Marković, S. B., Hose, T. A., Smalley, I., O’Hara-Dhand, K., Basarin, B., Lukić, T., Vujičić, M. D. 2011: Loess towards (geo) tourism – proposed application on loess in Vojvodina region (north Serbia). Acta geographica Slovenica 51-2. DOI:

Vesković, S., Milinković, S., Abramović, B., Ljubaj, I. 2020: Determining criteria significance in selecting reach stackers by applying the fuzzy PIPRECIA method. Operational Research in Engineering Sciences: Theory and Applications 3-1.

Vlados, C. 2019: On a correlative and evolutionary SWOT analysis. Journal of Strategy and Management 12-3. DOI:

Vujičić, M. D., Vasiljević, D. A., Marković, S. B., Hose, T. A., Lukić, T., Hadžić, O., Janićević, S. 2011: Preliminary geosite assessment model (GAM) and its application on Fruška Gora Mountain, potential geotourism destination of Serbia. Acta geographica Slovenica 51-2. DOI:

Vujko, A., Plavša, J. 2014: Evaluation of Fruška Gora National Park (Serbia) for sport and recreational tourism. Acta geographica Slovenica 54-2. DOI:

Wu, C., Wang, R. 2014: Evaluating Chinese tourist's service quality criteria under uncertainty. International Review of Management and Business Research 3-2.

Wu, W. W. 2011: Beyond travel and tourism competitiveness ranking using DEA, GST, ANN and Borda count. Expert Systems with Applications 38-10. DOI:

Yüksel, İ., Dagˇdeviren, M. 2007: Using the analytic network process (ANP) in a SWOT analysis – a case study for a textile firm. Information Sciences 177-16. DOI:

Zavadskas, E. K., Turskis, Z. 2011: Multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) methods in economics: An overview. Technological and Economic Development of Economy 17-2. DOI:

Zavadskas, E. K., Turskis, Z., Kildienė, S. 2014: State of art surveys of overviews on MCDM/MADM methods. Technological and Economic Development of Economy 20-1. DOI:

Zhang, H., Gu, C. L., Gu, L. W., Zhang, Y. 2011: The evaluation of tourism destination competitiveness by TOPSIS and information entropy – A case in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Tourism Management 32-2. DOI:

Zoraghi, N., Amiri, M., Talebi, G., Zowghi, M. 2013: A fuzzy MCDM model with objective and subjective weights for evaluating service quality in hotel industries. Journal of Industrial Engineering International 9. DOI:




How to Cite

Popović, G., Stanujkić, D., Mimović, P., Milovanović, G., Karabašević, D., Brzaković, P., & Brzaković, A. (2021). An integrated SWOT–extended PIPRECIA model for identifying key determinants of tourism development: The case of Serbia. Acta Geographica Slovenica, 61(2), 23–40.