Assessing average annual air temperature trends using the Mann–Kendall test in Kosovo

  • Milivoj B. Gavrilov
  • Slobodan B. Marković
  • Natalija Janc
  • Milena Nikolić
  • Aleksandar Valjarević
  • Blaž Komac
  • Matija Zorn
  • Milan Punišić
  • Nikola Bačević
Keywords: air temperature trends, climate change, Mann–Kendall test, Kosovo


The annual trends of surface mean monthly air temperature and monthly extreme temperatures were analyzed from ten meteorological stations in Kosovo. The data refer to observation periods between 1949 and 1999 for four stations, and observation periods between 1965 and 1999 for the remaining six stations. Trends were analyzed for nine time series. Positive trends were found in six series, and negative trends were found in three series. After an assessment of these trends using the Mann–Kendall test, positive trends were confirmed in four series, a negative trend was confirmed in one series, and in one series there was no trend, whereas trends were characterized as slightly positive in two time series and slightly negative in one series.


Download data is not yet available.


Alexandersson, H. 1986: A homogeneity test applied to precipitation data. Journal of climatology 6-6. DOI:

Alcamo, J., Moreno, J. M, Nováky, B., Bindi, M., Corobov, R., Devoy, R. J. N., Giannakopoulos, C., Martin, E., Olesen, J. E., Shvidenko, A. 2007: Europe Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge.

Brázdil, R., Budíková, M., Auer, I., Böhm, R., Cegnar, T., Faško, P., Lapin, M., Gajić-Čapka, M., Zaninović, K., Koleva, E., Niedźwiedź, T., Ustrnul, Z., Szalai, S., Weber, R. O. 1996: Trends of maximum and minimum daily temperatures in central and southeastern Europe. International journal of climatology 16-7. DOI:

Drapela, K., Drapelova, I. 2011: Application of Mann-Kendall test and the Sen’s slope estimates for trend detection in deposition data from Bílý Kříž (Beskydy Mts., the Czech Republic) 1997-2010. Beskydy 4-2.

Đorđević, S. V. 2008: Temperature and precipitation trends in Belgrade and indicators of changing extremes for Serbia. Geographica Pannonica 12-2.

Gavrilov, M. B., Lazić, L., Pešić, A., Milutinović, M., Marković, D., Stanković, A., Gavrilov, M. M. 2010: Influence of hail suppression on the hail trend in Serbia. Physical geography 31-5. DOI:

Gavrilov, M. B., Lazić, L., Milutinović, M., Gavrilov, M. M. 2011: Influence of hail suppression on the hail trend in Vojvodina, Serbia. Geographica Pannonica 15-2.

Gavrilov, M. B., Marković, S. B., Zorn, M., Komac, B., Lukić, T., Milošević, M., Janićević, S. 2013: Is hail suppression useful in Serbia? – General review and new results. Acta geographica Slovenica 53-1. DOI:

Gavrilov, M. B., Tošić, I., Marković, S. B., Unkašević, M., Petrović, P. 2016: The analysis of annual and seasonal temperature trends using the Mann-Kendall test in Vojvodina, Serbia. IDŐJÁRÁS (accepted). Budapest.

Gavrilov, M. B., Marković, S. B., Jarad, A., Korać, V. M. 2015: The analysis of temperature trends in Vojvodina (Serbia) from 1949 to 2006. Thermal Science. DOI:

Gburčik, P., Gburčik, V., Gavrilov, M. B., Srdanović, V., Mastilović, S. 2006: Complementary regimes of solar and wind energy in Serbia. Geographica Pannonica 10-2.

Gilbert, R. O. 1987: Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring. DOI:

Hardy, J., T. 2006: Climate change – causes, effects and solutions. Chichester.

Hrnjak, I., Lukić, T., Gavrilov, M. B., Marković, S. B., Unkašević, M., Tošić, I. 2014: Aridity in Vojvodina, Serbia. Theoretical and applied climatology 115, 1–2. DOI:

Internet 1: (11. 3. 2014).

Internet 2: (25. 5. 2014).

IPCC 2007: Intergovenmental panel climate change. The physical science basis. Cambridge.

Jovanović, G., Reljin, I., Savić, T. 2002: NAO Influence on climate variability in FRY. 18th International conference on Carpathian meteorology. Belgrade.

Karmeshu, N. 2012: Trend detection in annual temperature & precipitation using the Mann Kendall Test – a case study to assess climate change on select states in the northeastern United States. Master’s thesis, University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia.

Kendall, M. G. 1975: Rank correlation methods. London.

Klein Tank, A. M. G., Wijngaard, J. B., Konnen, G. P., Bohm, R., Demaree, G., Gocheva, A., Mileta, M., Pashiardis, S., Hejkrlik, L., Kern-Hansen, C., Heino, R., Bessemoulin, P., Muller-Westermeier., G, Tzanakou, M., Szalai, S., Palsdottir, T., Fitzgerald, D., Rubin, S., Capaldo, M., Maugeri, M., Leitass, A., Bukantis, A., Aberfeld, R., VanEngelen, A. F. V., Forland, E., Mietus, M., Coelho, F., Mares, C., Razuvaev, V., Nieplova, E., Cegnar, T., López, J. A., Dahlstrom, B., Moberg, A., Kirchhofer, W., Ceylan, A., Pachaliuk, O., Alexander, L. V., Petrovic, P. 2002: Daily dataset of 20th-century surface air temperature and precipitation series for the European climate assessment. International journal of climatology 22-12. DOI:

Pavlović Berdon, N. 2012: The impact of Arctic and North Atlantic oscillation on temperature and precipitation anomalies in Serbia. Geographica Pannonica 16-2.

Sinha, T., Cherkauer, K. A. 2008: Time series analysis of soil freeze and thaw processes in Indiana. Journal of hydrometeorology 9-5. DOI:

Sokolović, G., Radičević, D., Ranković, S. 1984: Atlas klime Socijalističke Federativne Republike Jugoslavije. Beograd.

Tabari, H., Marofi, S., Aeini, A., Talaee, P. H., Mohammadi, K. 2011: Trend analysis of reference evapotranspiration in the western half of Iran. Agricultural and forest meteorology 151-2. DOI:

Tošić, I., Hrnjak, I., Gavrilov, M. B., Unkašević, M., Marković, S. B., Lukić, T. 2014: Annual and seasonal variability of precipitation in Vojvodina, Serbia. Theoretical and applied climatology 117, 1–2. DOI:

Unkašević, M., Tošić, I. 2009a: Changes in extreme daily winter and summer temperatures in Belgrade. Theoretical and applied climatology 95, 1–2. DOI:

Unkašević, M., Tošić, I. 2009b: An analysis of heat waves in Serbia. Global and planetary change 65, 1–2. DOI:

Unkašević, M., Tošić, I. 2013: Trends in temperature indices over Serbia: relationships to large-scale circulation patterns. International journal of climatology 33-15. DOI:

Wibig. J., Glowicki, B. 2002: Trends of minimum and maximum temperature in Poland. Climate research 20-2. DOI:

Yue, S., Wang, C. 2004: The Mann-Kendall test modified by effective sample size to detect trend in serially correlated hydrological series. Water resources management 18-3. DOI:

How to Cite
Gavrilov MB, Marković SB, Janc N, Nikolić M, Valjarević A, Komac B, Zorn M, Punišić M, Bačević N. Assessing average annual air temperature trends using the Mann–Kendall test in Kosovo. AGS [Internet]. 2018Jan.1 [cited 2022Jan.26];58(1):7–25. Available from: