Syntaxonomy of chalk outcrop vegetation of the order Thymo cretacei-Hyssopetalia cretacei

  • Yakiv Didukh
  • Olga Chusova
  • Olga Demina
Keywords: Central Russian Upland, Hyssopus flora, lowered alpine plants classifcation


The order Thymo cretacei-Hyssopetalia cretacei Didukh 1989 combines chalk outcrop plant communities of the southwestern Central Russian Upland. Its specificity can be attributed to a rather peculiar and heterogeneous flora with a large number of endemic species. The question about its origin has caused a lively discussion, which has been going on since the late nineteenth century. Since 1989 works on the classification of these communities have frequently been carried out, but until today no unanimous decision could be reached. The purpose of our research was to conduct a critical analysis of the syntaxonomical structure of Cretaceous outcrop vegetation and to show its difference from the steppe vegetation of the class Festuco-Brometea Br.-Bl. et Tx. ex Soó 1947. The territory of our research covers the southwestern foothills of the Central Russian Upland and the Donetsk Range, located only within the steppe zone and characterised by Cenomanian chalk outcrops. In total 354 relevés were used for the analysis. The modified TWINSPAN classification was used for the analysis. Our research has shown that the order Thymo cretacei-Hyssopetalia cretacei includes twelve associations belonging to three alliances: Artemisio hololeucae-Hyssopion cretacei Romashchenko et al. 1996, Euphorbio cretophilae-Thymion cretacei Didukh 1989 and Centaureo carbonatae-Koelerion talievii Romashchenko et al. 1996.


Download data is not yet available.


Averinova, E. 2005: Calcifitic steppe communities of the Seim River basin (within the Kursk region). Vegetation of Russia 7: 39–49. [in Russian]

Averinova, E. 2011: Calcareous vegetation of the Natural park "Rovenskyi" (Belgorodregion). Bulletin of the Bryansk State University 4: 60–65. [in Russian]

Averinova, E. 2012: Calcareous vegetation of the Natural reserve "Divnogorje" (Voronezh region). Bulletin of the Bryansk State University 4 (2): 87–89. [in Russian]

Averinova, E. 2014: Communities with Hedysarum grandiflorum Pall. within the territory of the Middle Russian upland. Bulletin of the Bryansk Departmentof the Russian Botanical Society 1 (3): 37–47. [in Russian]

Baranov, A. (ed.) 1969: Atlas of the USSR. Main Department of Geodesy and Cartography under the Council of Ministers of the USSR, Moscow, 199 pp.[in Russian]

Bohn,U. & Neuhäusl, R. 2000: Map of the Natural Vegetation of Europe / Karte der Natürlichen Vegetation Europas: Part 2 / Teil 2: Legend / Legende (Folded Maps). BfN-Schriftenvertrieb, 156 pp.

Chytrý, M., Tichý, L., Holt, J. & Botta-Dukát, Z. 2002: Determination of diagnostic species with statistical fidelity measures. Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 79–90.

Cvelev, N. N., Alekseev, Yu. E., Geltman, D. V., Grabovskaya (Borodina), A. E., Grintal, A. R., Gusev, Yu. D., Egorova, T. V., Ikonnikov, S. S., Krupkina, L. I., Linchevskyi, I. A., Medvedeva, N. A., Mordak, E. V., Mosyakin, S. L., Nikitin, V. V., Olyanitskaya, L. G., Pobedimova, E. G., Sennikov, A. I., Skvortsov, A. K., Cmolyaninova, L. A., Vasilchenko, I. T. & Vasil'ev, I. V. 1996: Flora of the East Europe (Vol. 9). St. Petersburg, 456 pp. [in Russian]

Demina, O. N. 2011: Regularity of distribution and development of steppe plant formation in Don River basin (within the Rostov region), Moscow: 50 pp. [in Russian]

Demina, O. N. 2012: New association of hyssop and thyme steppes at Donetsk Ridge. Proceedings of the Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences 1(4): 998–1003. [in Russian]

Demina, O.N. 2014: "The Don steppe preserve" and the Don basins' east pontic. Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, 63 pp.

Demina, O. N. 2016: East pontic steppesand its territorial preserve. “IP Skorokhodov V.A.”, Moscow, 64 pp. [in Russian]

Didukh, Ya. P. 1981: Tomiliars of the Mountain Crimea. Ukrainian Botanical Journal 38(4): 18–23. [in Ukrainian]

Didukh,Ya.P. 1989: Floristic classification of communities of "hissopus flora". Ukrainian Botanical Journal 46(6): 16– 21. [in Ukrainian]

Didukh, Ya. P. & Korotchenko, I. A. 1996: The steppe vegetation on the southern part of the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of the Ukraine. I. Class Festucetea vaginatae and Helianthemo-Thymetea. Ukrainian phytosociologic collection 2: 56–63. [in Ukrainian]

Didukh, Ya. P. &Korotchenko,I. A. 1997: The steppe vegetation on the southern part of the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe of the Ukraine. II. Class Festuco-Brometea. Ukrainian phytosociologic collection 1 (6): 20–39. [in Ukrainian]

Didukh, Ya. P. (ed.) 2009: Green Data Book of Ukraine. Al'terpres, Kyiv, 448 pp. [in Ukrainian]

Didukh, Ya. P. & Chusova, O. O. 2014: Rare xerophytic steppe communities and biotopes in the Krasna river valley (Lugansk region). Ukrainian Botanical Journal 71(3): 275–285. [in Ukrainian]

Dobrochayeva, D. N., Kotov, M. I., Prokudin, Yu. N., Barbarych, A. I., Chopik, V. I., Protopopova, V. V., Morozyuk, S. S., Dubovik, O. N., Zyman, S. N., Shelyag-Sosonko, Yu. R., Myakushko, T. Ya., Zaveruha, B. V., Katina, Z. F., Skrypnik, N. P., Kritskaya, L. I., Lypa, A. L., Mrinskiy, O. P., Alekseev, Yu. E., Skvortsov, A. K., Olyaniskaya, L. G., Krasnova, A. H., Tveretinova, V. V., Slyusarenko, L. P., Shymkus, G. T., Didukh, Ya. P., Glagoleva, N. G., Sipaylova, L. M., Ilinskaya, A. F., Chernyavskiy, A. V., Fedoronchuk, N. S., Ivchenko, I. S., Boyko, T. G., Verenko, A. V. & Ornst, E. Y. 1987: The determinant of higher plants of Ukraine. Naukova dumka, Kyiv, 548 pp. [in Ukrainian]

Euro+Med (2006): Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Published on the Internet [last accessed on 2010]

Golitsyin, S. V. 1936: To the botanical-geographical characteristics of the south-west of Kursk region. Proceedings of Voronezh State University 9 (1): 98–144. [in Russian]

Golitsyin, S. V. 1958: Carex pediformis C.A. Mey on the South of Central Russian Upland. Botanical Journal 43 (12): 1740–1748. [in Russian]

Golitsyin, S. V. 1965: "Lowered Alps" and chalk vegetation communities with Hyssopus of the Central Russian Upland. Voronezh University Publishing House, Voronezh, 16 pp. [in Russian]

Golitsyin, S. V. 1970: Relict flora and vegetation. In Golitsyin S. V., Doronin Yu. A.: Monuments of nature of the Voronezh region. Central Black Earth Book Publishing House, Voronezh, pp. 107–119. [in Russian]

Golitsyin, S. V., Doronin, Yu. A. & Matyunenko, V. V. 1963: Hedysarum cretaceum Fisch. in the western part of its range. News of the Voronezh branch of the Voronezh Botanical Society: 29–34. [in Russian]

Grosset, G. O. 1935: On the age of the plains relic flora of the European part of the USSR. Zemlevedeniye 37 (3): 185–234. [in Russian]

Hennekens, S. M. & Schaminеe, J. H. 2001: TURBOVEG, a comprehensive data base management system for vegetation data. Journal of Vegetation Science 12: 589–591.

Honcharenko, I. 2000: Vegetation chalk outcrops of the Sumy geobotanical district / Fitosotsiolohiya. 100 years of scientific direction, Kyiv, 163–169. [in Ukrainian]

Hryn', F. O. 1938: To the question of the dynamics of chalk outcrops vegetation. Ukrainian phytosociologic collection 2: 89–110. [in Ukrainian]

Hryn', F. O. 1973: Chalk outcrops vegetation. In: Barbarych A. et al. (eds.): Vegetation of the UkrSSR: Steppe, stony outcrop, sand. Naukova dumka, Kyiv, pp. 336–356. [in Ukrainian]

Hrytsenko, A. (ed.). 2004: Environmental Atlas of Luhansk region.LODA, Luhansk: 167 pp. [in Ukrainian]

Karandeeva, M. 1957: Physiography of Europian part of USSR. Moscow state university, Moscow,314 pp.[in Russian]

Kleopov, Yu. D. 1930: About the Mariupol flora in connection with the relic issues in Ukraine. Bulletin of the Kiev Botanical Garden 1: 20 pp. [in Ukrainian]

Klokov, M. V. & Dobrochayeva, D. N. 1974: A note about Helianthemum canum and its related species. Systematics news of higher and lower plant-forms. Naukova dumka, Kyiv, pp. 67–77 [in Ukrainian]

Kondratyuk, E. N., Burda, R.I., Chupryna, T.T.&Khomyakov, M.T.1998: Lugansk State Reserve. Vegetable world. Naukova dumka, Kyiv, 188 pp. [in Russian]

Kozo-Polyanskyi, B. M. 1910: On the study of Voronezh flora. Russian Botanical Journal 4-6: 33–43. [in Russian]

Kozo-Polyanskyi, B. M. 1925: Botanical Impressions from Galichya Mountain. Izvestiya of the Voronezh Local Lore Society 3. [in Russian]

Kozo-Polyanskyi, B. M. 1931: In the land of living fossils. State educational and pedagogical publishing house, Moscow,184 pp.[in Russian]

Lavrenko, E. 1961: On the development of some coenotic types of the flora of Ancient Middle-earth in connection with Alpine orogenesis. Proceedings of Tashkent State University 187 (38): 17–27. [in Russian]

Lavrenko, E. M. 1932: Über die Entwicklungsyentren der Flora und das Altrer des ukrainischen Endemismus. Die Quartärperiode 4: 27–43.

Litvinov, D. 1891: Geobotanical notes on the flora of European Russia. Moscow, 123 pp. [in Russian]

Litvinov, D. 1902: On the relic character of the stony slopes flora of European Russia. Proceedings of Botanical Museum of Academy of Science 1: 67. [in Russian]

Mucina, L., Bueltmann, H., Dierßen, K., Theurillat, J.-P., Raus, T., Čarni, A., Šumberová, K., Willner, W., Dengler, J., Gavilán, R., Chytrý, M., Hájek, M., Di Pietro, R., Iakushenko, D., Pallas, J., Daniëls, F., Bergmeier, E., Santos Guerra, A., Ermakov, N. & Tichý, L. 2016: Vegetation of Europe: Hierarchical floristic classification system of vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities. Applied Vegetation Science 19 (Suppl. 1): 3–264.

Pachos’kyy, J. K. 1910: The main features of the development of the flora of south-western Russia. Notes of the Novorossiysk Society of Naturalists (Supplement to the edition 34): 430 pp. [in Russian]

Poluyanov, A. V. 2009: Petrofitic feather-grass and thyme steppes in the South-East of the Kursk Regiion (within the limits of the Oskol River basin). Vegetation of Russia. St. Petersburg: 49 – 62 pp. [inRussian]

Poluyanov, A. 2012: Grass vegetation of the Kursk region (syntaxonomy and protection issues) In: Poluyanov, A. & Averinova, A. (eds.): Kursk State University, Bryansk State University, 276 pp.[in Russian]

Roleček, J., Tichý L., Zelený, D., Chytrý, M. 2009: Modified TWINSPAN classification in which the hierarchy respects clusterheterogeneity. Journal of Vegetation Science 20: 596–602.

Romashchenko, K., Didukh, Ya. & Solomaha, V. 1996: Syntaxonomy of Helianthemo-Thymetea cl. nov. of chalk outcrops vegetation of south-estern Ukraine. Ukrainian phytosociologic collection 1: 49–62. [in Ukrainian]

Semenova-Tian-Shanskaya, A. M. 1954: Plant biology and vegetation dynamics of Cretaceous outcrops along the Derkul River. Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of the USSR 9: 578–645. [in Russian]

Sereda, M. M. 2003: Syntaxonomy of petrophytic steppes of the Don river basin. Stavropol, 19 pp.[in Russian]

Sereda, M. M. 2008: New association of petrophyte vegetation of Northern Pryazovie. Vegetation of Russia, 12: 62–67. [in Russian]

Sereda, M. M. 2009: Chalk outcropsvegetation of the Don River in Rostov region. Vegetation of Eastern Europe: Classification, ecology and protection: 201–205.[in Russian]

Shelyag-Sosonko, Yu. R., Dydukh, Ya. P. & Dubyna, D. V. 1991: Checklist of vegetation of Ukraine. Naukova dumka, Kyiv, 272 pp. [in Russian]

Szafer, W. 1928: Trzeciorzędowe rośliny górskie na wale scytyjskim w ostoi podolsko-wołyńskiej. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 1 (2): 97–119.

Taliev, V. 1897: On the issue of relic plants of the glacial period. Proceedings of the Kharkov Society of Naturalists 31: 127–241. [in Russian]

Taliev, V. 1904: Chalk outputs vegetation of Southern Russia. I. Proceedings of the Society of Naturalists at Kharkov University 39(1): 81–238.

Taliev, V. 1905: Chalk outputs vegetation of Southern Russia. II. Proceedings of the Society of Naturalists at Kharkov University 4(1): 1–282.[in Russian]

Tichý, L. 2002: JUICE, software for vegetataion classification. Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 451–453.

Tkachenko,V.S., Didukh,Ya. P., Henov, A. P., Dudka, I. O., Wasser, S. P., Boyko, M. F., Vetrova, Z. I., Navrotskaya, I. L., Partika, L. Ya., Heluta, V. P., Smyk, L. V., Tyhonenko, Yu. Ya., Merezhko, T. O., Burdyukova, L. I. & Soldatova, I. M. 1998: Ukrainian natural steppe reserve. Vegetable world. Fitosotsiotsentr, Kyiv, 280 pp. [in Ukrainian]

Tsinher, V. 1885: Collection of information on the flora of Central Russia. University Printing House, Moscow, 517 pp. [in Russian]

Tutin, T. G. (ed.) 1968-1993: Flora Europaea (Vol. 1-5.), Cambridge University Press.

Vakarenko, L. P. & Dubyna, D.V. 2006: Rarity phytocenotic fund of shrub and herbaceous vegetation of southern Ukraine. Chornomorski Botanical Journal 2 (1): 108–115. [in Ukrainian]

Weber, H. E., Moravec, J. & Theurillat, J.-P. 2000: International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature. 3rd edition. Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 739–768.

Weather in Ukraine (2014). Published on the Internet [last accessed on 2017]

How to Cite
DidukhY., ChusovaO. and DeminaO. (2018) “Syntaxonomy of chalk outcrop vegetation of the order Thymo cretacei-Hyssopetalia cretacei”, Hacquetia, 17(1). Available at: (Accessed: 29February2020).