Landslide susceptibility zonation: A case study of the Municipality of Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegovina)


  • Radislav Tošić
  • Slavoljub Dragićević
  • Matija Zorn
  • Novica Lovrić



landslides, landslide susceptibility, GIS, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina


Along with flash floods, landslides are one of the most widespread and damaging natural hazards in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper determines areas susceptible to landslides in the Municipality of Banja Luka (Republika Srpska, northwest Bosnia and Herzegovina). Based on a terrain survey in a 55.4 km2 area, 216 landslides were identified with a total area of 2.9 km2 or 5.2% of the municipality. According to landslide susceptibility modeling, low susceptibility is present from one-quarter to one-half of the territory and very high susceptibility is present from several percentages up to one-third of the territory, depending on the model used. The results may support government mitigation programs and help in developing a landslide hazard and risk assessment model for the area.


Download data is not yet available.


Aleotti, P., Chowdhury, R. 1999: Landslide hazard assessment: summary review and new perspectives. Bulletin of engineering geology and the environment 58-1. DOI:

Anbalagan, R. 1992: Landslide hazard evaluation and zonation mapping in mountainous terrain. Engineering geology 32-4. DOI:

Barredo, J. I., Benavides, A., Hervas, J., van Westen, C. J. 2000: Comparing heuristic landslide hazard assessment techniques using GIS in the Tirajana basin, Gran Canaria Island, Spain. International journal of applied earth observation and geoinformation 2-1. DOI:

Burlica, C., Vukorep, I. 1980: Soil map of Bosnia and Herzegovina in scale 1 : 500,000. Sarajevo.

Carrara, A., Cardinali, M., Detti, R., Guzzetti, F., Pasqui, V., Reichenbach, P. 1991: GIS techniques and statistical models in evaluating landslide hazard. Earth surface processes and landforms 16-5. DOI:

Carrara, A., Cardinali, M., Guzzetti, F., Reichenbach, P. 1995: GIS technology in mapping landslide hazard. Geographical information systems in assessing natural hazards. Dordrecht.

Cevik, E., Topal, T. 2003: GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping for a problematic segment of the natural gas pipeline, Hendek (Turkey). Environmental geology 44-8. DOI:

Clerici, A., Perego, S., Tellini, C., Vescovi, P. 2002: A procedure for landslide susceptibility zonation by the conditional analysis method. Geomorphology 48-4. DOI:

CORINE Land cover 1: Methodology. European environment agency, 1994. Internet: (4. 11. 2012).

Crozier, M. J., Glade, T. 2005: Landslide hazard and risk: Issues, concepts, and approach. Landslide hazard and risk. DOI:

Dragićević, S., Carević, I., Kostadinov, S., Novković, I., Abolmasov, B., Milojković, B., Simić, D. 2012: Landslide susceptibility zonation in the Kolubara river basin (western Serbia) – Analysis of input data. Carpathian journal of earth and environmental sciences 7-2.

Fernández, C. I., Del Castillo, T. F., Hamdouni, R. E., Montero, J. C. 1999: Verification of landslide susceptibility mapping. A case study. Earth surface processes and landforms 24-6. DOI: (SICI)1096-9837(199906)24:6<537::AID-ESP965>3.0.CO;2-6

Foumelis, M., Lekkas, E., Parcharidis, I. 2004: Landslide susceptibility mapping by GIS-based qualitative weight- ing procedure in Corinth area. Bulletin of 10th International congress of the Geological society 36-2.

Guzzetti, F., Carrara, A., Cardinali, M., Reichenbach, P. 1999: Landslide hazard evaluation: a review of curent techniques and their application in a multi-scale study, Central Italy. Geomorphology 31, 1-4. DOI:

Guzzetti, F., Reichenbach, P., Ardizzone, F., Cardinali, M., Galli, M. 2006: Estimating the quality of landslide susceptibility models. Geomorphology 81, 1-2. DOI:

Komac, B., Zorn, M., Gavrilov, M. B., Marković, S. B. 2013: Natural hazards – some introductory thoughts. Acta geographica Slovenica 53-1. DOI:

Luzi, L., Pergalani, F. 1999: Slope instability in static and dynamic conditions for urban planning: the ’Oltre Po Pavese’ case history (Regione Lombardia – Italy). Natural hazards 20-1. DOI:

Magliulo, P., Di Lisio, A., Russo, F., Zelano, A. 2008: Geomorphology and landslide susceptibility assessment using GIS and bivariate statistics: a case study in southern Italy. Natural hazards 47-3. DOI:

Mojićević, M., Vilovski, S., Tomić, B., Pamić, J. 1976: Geological map of Banja Luka in scale 1 : 100,000. Belgrade.

Nagarajan, R., Mukherjee, A., Roy, A., Khire, M. V. 1998: Temporal remote sensing data and GIS application in landslide hazard zonation of part of Western Ghat, India. International journal of remote sensing 19-4. DOI:

Oztekin, B., Topal, T. 2005: GIS-based detachment susceptibility analyses of a cut slope in limestone, Ankara–Turkey. Environmental geology 49-1. DOI:

Perić, J., Arsovski, M., Ćirić, D., Vilovski, S., Sikošek, B. 1971: Detaljna inženjersko-geološka i geomehanička istraživanja urbanog područja Banje Luke. Sarajevo.

Remondo, J., González, A., Díaz De Terán, J. R., Cendrero, A., Fabbri, A., Cheng, C. F. 2003: Validation of landslide susceptibility maps: examples and applications from a case study in Northern Spain. Natural Hazards 30-3. DOI:

Saha, A. K., Gupta, R. P., Arora, M. K. 2002: GIS-based landslide hazard zonation in the Bhagirathi (Ganga) Valley, Himalayas. International journal of remote sensing 23-2. DOI:

Santacana, N., Baeza, B., Corominas, J., De Paz, A., Marturiá, J. 2003: A GIS-Based multivariate statistical analysis for shallow landslide susceptibility mapping in La Pobla de Lillet area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain). Natural hazards 30-3. DOI:

Süzen, M. L., Doyuran, V. 2004: A comparison of the GIS based landslide susceptibility assessment methods: multivariate versus bivariate. Environmental geology 45-5. DOI:

Tošić, R., Dragićević, S., Lovrić, N. 2012: Assessment of soil erosion and sediment yield changes using erosion potential method – Case study: Republic of Srpska-BiH. Carpathian journal of earth and environmental sciences 7-4.

Tošić, R., Kapović, M., Lovrić, N., Dragićević, S. 2013: Assessment of soil erosion potential using RUSLE

and GIS: A case study of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Fresenius environmental bulletin 22-11a.

Trkulja, D. 1998: Erathquakes of Banja Luka Region. Banja Luka.

Turrini, M. C., Visintainer, P. 1998: Proposal of a method to define areas of landslide hazard and application to an area of the Dolomites, Italy. Engineering geology 50, 3-4. DOI: S0013-7952(98)00022-2

van Westen, C. J. 1994: GIS in landslide hazard zonation: A review, with examples from the Andes of Colombia. Mountain environments and geographic information systems. London.

van Westen, C. J. 1997: Statistical landslide hazard analysis. Application Guide, ILWIS 2.1 for Windows. Enschede.

van Westen, C. J., Lulie Getahun, F. 2003: Analyzing the evolution of the Tessina landslide using aerial photographs and digital elevation models. Geomorphology 54, 1-2. DOI:

van Westen, C. J., Rengers, N., Terlien, M. T. J., Soeters, R. 1997: Prediction of the occurrence of slope instability phenomena through GIS-based hazard zonation. Geologische Rundschau 86-2. DOI:

van Westen, C. J., Seijmonsbergen, A. C., Mantovani, F. 1999: Comparing landslide hazard maps. Natural hazards 20, 2-3. Amsterdam. DOI:

Vilovski, S. 1970: Osnovna geološka karta, list Banja Luka 1 : 25,000. Sarajevo.

Voogd, H. 1983: Multi-criteria evaluation for urban and regional planning. London.

Wati, S. E., Hastuti T., Widjojo, S., Pinem, F. 2010: Landslide susceptibility mapping with heuristic approach in mountainous area: A case study in Tawangmangu sub district Central Java, Indonesia. International archives of the photogrammetry, remote sensing and spatial information science 38-8.

Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2004: Deterministic modeling of landslide and rockfall risk. Acta geographica Slovenica 44-2. DOI:

Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2007: Probability modelling of landslide hazard. Acta geographica Slovenica 47-2.


Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2008: Zemeljski plazovi v Sloveniji. Georitem 8. Ljubljana.

Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2009: The importance of landsliding in a flysch geomorphic system: The example of the Goriška brda hills (W Slovenia). Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Suppl. 53-2. DOI:

Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2011: Damage caused by natural disasters in Slovenia and globally between 1995 and 2010. Acta geographica Slovenica 51-1. DOI:




How to Cite

Tošić, R., Dragićević, S., Zorn, M., & Lovrić, N. (2014). Landslide susceptibility zonation: A case study of the Municipality of Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Acta Geographica Slovenica, 54(1), 189–202.