Labelling, certification and branding of cheeses in the southeastern Alps (Italy, Slovenia): Montasio, Bovec, Tolminc and Mohant cheese

Keywords: cheese, geografical indications, quality schemes, collective trademarks and certificates, heritage registers, the southeastern Alps

Abstract

The paper presents various collective instruments used in the labelling, certification and branding of cheeses in the southeastern Alps of Slovenia and Italy. Based on long term ethnography it discusses four case studies of Montasio, Bovec, Tolminc, and Mohant cheeses, that were awarded protected designation of origin at European Union level. The impact of geographical indications on the local dairy chains is compared to other instruments, ranging from top-down European and national quality schemes and inventories of traditional agricultural products and heritage, to grass-root initiatives such as Slow Food instruments and local brands. The study finds substantial difference in the use and impact of geographical indications in Italy and Slovenia, as well as several ambiguous and dissonant effects in all the identified instruments.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

. 1107/96/EC: Commission regulation (EC) No 1107/96 of 12 June 1996 on the registration of geographical indications and designations of origin under the procedure laid down in Article 17 of Council regulation (EEC) No 2081/92. Official Journal of the European Union 148, 21.6.1996.

. 1127/2013/EU: Commission implementing Regulation (EU) No 1127/2013 of 7 November 2013 approving minor amendments to the specification for a name entered in the register of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications (Montasio (PDO)). Official Journal of the European Union 302, 13.11.2013.

. 1151/2012/EU: Regulation (EU) No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 November 2012 on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union 343, 14.12.2012.

. 1163/2013/EU: Commission implementing Regulation (EU) No 1163/2013 of 7 November 2013 entering a name in the register of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications [Mohant (PDO)]. Official Journal of the European Union 309, 19.11.2013.

. 1305/2013/EU: Regulation (EU) No 1305/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 December 2013 on support for rural development by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) and repealing Council regulation (EC) No 1698/2005. Official Journal of the European Union 347/2013, 20.12.2013.

. 187/2012/EU: Commission implementing Regulation (EU) No 187/2012 of 7 March 2012 entering a name in the register of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications [Tolminc (PDO)]. Official Journal of the European Union 69, 8.3.2012.

. 2010/C 212/07: Publication of an amendment application pursuant to article 6(2) of Council regulation (EC) No 510/2006 on the protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union 212, 5.8.2010.

. 2016/C 70/04: Publication of an application for approval of a minor amendment in accordance with the second subparagraph of article 53(2) of Regulation (EU) No 1151/2012. Official Journal of the European Union 70, 24.2.2016.

. 2017/C 286/08: Publication of an application for approval of a minor amendment in accordance with the second subparagraph of article 53(2) of Regulation (EU) No 1151/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union 286, 30.8.2017.

. 2081/92/EEC: Council regulation (EEC) No 2081/92 of 14 July 1992 on the protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs. Official Journal of the European Union 208, 24.7.1992.

/2011/EU: Commission implementing regulation (EU) No 355/2011 of 8 April 2011 approving non-minor amendments to the specification for a name entered in the register of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications (Montasio (PDO)). Official Journal of the European Union 98, 13.4.2011.

. 509/2006/EC: Council regulation (EC) No 509/2006 of 20 March 2006 on agricultural products and foodstuffs as traditional specialities guaranteed. Official Journal of the European Union 93, 31.3.2006.

. 753/2012/EU: Commission implementing regulation (EU) No 753/2012 of 14 August 2012 entering a name in the register of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications (Bovški sir (PDO)). Official Journal of the European Union 223, 21.8.2012.

. 834/2007/E834/2007/EC C: Council regulation (EC) No 834/2007 of 28 June 2007 on organic production and labelling of organic products and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 2092/91. Official Journal of the European Union 189, 20.7.2007.

Act amending the Agriculture act. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 26/2014. Ljubljana.

Agriculture Act. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 54/2000. Ljubljana.

Bardone, E., Spalvēna, A. 2019: European Union food quality schemes and the transformation of traditional foods into European products in Latvia and Estonia. Appetite 135-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2018.12.029

Barham, E. 2003: Translating terroir: The global challenge of French AOC labelling. Journal of Rural Studies 19-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0743-0167(02)00052-9

Bianco, E., Pozzi, E., Tudorov, N. 2015. AQUA: Il marchio di qualità dell’agroalimentare garantito dalla Regione Friuli Venezia Giulia: Dalla terra alla tavola. Gorizia. Internet: http://www.farmwithscience.org/files/articles_pdf/aquaculture/brochure_aqua_ita.pdf (20. 6. 2020).

Bovolenta, S., Romanzin, A. 2014: Formaggi DOP alpini e razze alleviate: Il Montasio “Solo di Pezzata Rossa Italiana”. I formaggi protagonisti della zootecnia alpina. Quaderni SoZooAlp 8. Trento.

Bowen, S., Master, K. de 2011: New rural livelihoods or museums of production? Quality food initiatives in practice. Journal of Rural Studies 27-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2010.08.002

Contini, L. 2014: TuscanChinese. Internet: https://www.researchcatalogue.net/view/66263/66264 (17. 1. 2021).

Coombe, R. J., Ives, S., Huizenga, D. 2014: Geographical indications: The promise, perils and politics of protecting place-based products. Sage Handbook on Intellectual Property. Thousand Oaks. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2644494

Čotar, D. 1988: Il Montasio dalla A alla Z: Tradizione e technologia. Montasio, un sapore infinito. Udine.

Disposizioni per la formazione del bilancio annuale e pluriennale dello Stato (legge finanziaria 2003). Gazzetta Ufficiale 305, 31.12.2002.

European charter for mountain quality food products. 2016. Internet: https://www.euromontana.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/16_07_01-charter_euromontana_2016_en_final_QR-code.pdf (18. 3. 2021).

Farm to fork strategy. 2020: Internet: https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/safety/docs/f2f_action-plan_2020_strategy-info_en.pdf (17. 1. 2021).

Feagin, J., Orum, A., Sjoberg, G., 1991: A Case for the case study. Chapel Hill.

Fischione, A. 1998: Sirarstvo na Tolminskem, Kobariškem in Bovškem. Ljubljana.

Godina Golija, M. 2012: Contemporary appropriations of culinary tradition in Slovenia. Traditiones 41-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/Traditio2012410207

Gorlach, K., Starosta, P., Pilichowski, A., Adamski, T., Dzwonkowska, K. 2006: Local food production and knowledge dynamics in rural sustainable development in Poland. Local Food Production, non-Agricultural Economies and Knowledge Dynamics in Rural Sustainable Development (the Chech, Hungarian and Polish cases). Budapest. Internet: http://mek.oszk.hu/04000/04024/04024.pdf (5. 5. 2020).

Grasseni, C. 2007: La reinvenzione del cibo. Culture del gusto fra tradizione e globalizzazione ai piedi delle Alpi. Verona.

Grasseni, C. 2011: Re-inventing food: Alpine cheese in the age of global heritage. Anthropology of Food 8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4000/aof.6819

Grasseni, C. 2017: The heritage arena: Reinventing cheese in the Italian Alps. New York, Oxford. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvss40qp.6

Industrial property act. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 13/1992. Ljubljana

Internet 1: https://ec.europa.eu/info/food-farming-fisheries/food-safety-and-quality/certification/quality-labels/geographical-indications-register/ (13. 6. 2020).

Internet 2: http://www.latteriadipalse.it/consorzio.pdf (14. 6. 2020).

Internet 3: https://ec.europa.eu/chafea/agri/en/campaigns/legends-europe (14. 6. 2020).

Internet 4: https://www.clal.it/?section=formaggi_dop (14. 6. 2020).

Internet 5: http://www.montasio.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2017-DISCIPLINARE-Montasio-30.08.2017.pdf (14. 6. 2020).

Internet 6: http://www.montasio.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Montasio-Elenco-Produttori-e-Stagionatori_novembre_2019.pdf (14. 6. 2020).

Internet 7: https://www.fondazioneslowfood.com/en/ark-of-taste-slow-food/montasio-dalpeggio-2/ (14. 6. 2020).

Internet 8: http://ppl.regione.fvg.it/ (21. 6. 2020).

Internet 9: https://www.politicheagricole.it/flex/cm/pages/ServeBLOB.php/L/IT/IDPagina/15132 (22. 6. 2020).

Internet 10: http://www.ipac.regione.fvg.it/aspx/RicerchePercTematiciAntroAppr.aspx?idAmb=120&idsttem=4&TSK=BDI&searchOn=0&denominazione=&categoria=&stato=&regione=&provincia=%u00a7Udine%u00a7&comune= (22. 6. 2020).

Internet 11: http://www.intangiblesearch.eu/search/alpfoodway.php?db_name=intangible_search&tag_code=TAG_1332&lingua=inglese (22. 6. 2020).

Internet 12: http://www2.uil-sipo.si/dse.htm (17. 12. 2019).

Internet 13: https://www.gov.si/drzavni-organi/ministrstva/ministrstvo-za-kmetijstvo-gozdarstvo-in-prehrano/o-ministrstvu/seznami-certificiranih-proizvajalcev/ (15. 6. 2020).

Internet 14: https://www.tnp.si/sl/obiscite/znak-kakovosti-tnp/ (20. 6. 2020).

Internet 15: https://www.nasasuperhrana.si/o-projektu/ (20. 6. 2020).

Internet 16: https://www.gov.si/drzavni-organi/ministrstva/ministrstvo-za-kmetijstvo-gozdarstvo-in-prehrano/o-ministrstvu/seznami-certificiranih-proizvajalcev/ (20. 6. 2020).

Internet 17: https://www.parcoprealpigiulie.it/it/Principale/Iniziative_e_progetti/Il_Paniere_del_Parco/Il_Paniere_del_Parco.aspx (20. 6. 2020).

Internet 18: https://www.bohinj.si/bohinjsko/ (20. 6. 2020).

Internet 19: http://www.nesnovnadediscina.si/en/register-of-intangible-cultural-heritage/making-bohinj-mohant (3. 9. 2020).

Internet 20: https://www.fondazioneslowfood.com/en/what-we-do/the-ark-of-taste/ (21. 6. 2020).

Internet 21: https://ec.europa.eu/info/law/better-regulation/have-your-say/initiatives/12664-Revision-of-the-EU-geographical-indications-GI-systems-in-agricultural-products-and-foodstuffs-wines-and-spirit-drinks/public-consultation (17. 1. 2021).

Internet 22: https://www.slovenia.info/en/business/slovenia-european-region-of-gastronomy-2021 (17. 1. 2021).

Ledinek Lozej, Š. 2017: Dairying in the mountain pastures in the Julian Alps: Heritages, utopias and realities. Studia ethnologica Croatica 28-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17234/SEC.27.1

Ledinek Lozej, Š. 2020: Branding Tolmin cheese. Traditiones 49-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/Traditio2020490304

Ledinek Lozej, Š., Roškar, S. 2018a: Planine v Julijskih Alpah pred sodobnimi izzivi: Primera planin pod Montažem in v Bohinju. Etnologija in vas v 21. stoletju: Tradicionalno, ogroženo, ustvarjalno. 14. slovensko-hrvaške etnološke vzporednice. Zagreb, Ljubljana.

Ledinek Lozej, Š., Roškar, S. 2018b: Alps of the Julian Alps. Održivi razvoj planinskih područja: Iskustva, izazovi i perspective. Zbornici radova sa naučnih skupova 148-20. Podgorica.

Ledinek Lozej, Š., Šrimpf Vendramin, K. 2020: Food heritage-making between the Alps and the Adriatic. Traditiones 49-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/Traditio2020490301

Leitch, A. 2003: Slow food and the politics of pork fat: Italian food and European identity. Ethnos 68–4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0014184032000160514

Linee guida sulla verifica di quanto disposto dall’articolo 2, comma 3, del decreto 26 luglio 2017, concernente disposizioni nazionali per l’attuazione del regolamento (UE) n. 1151/2012 e del regolamento delegato (UE) n. 665/2014 sulle condizioni di utilizzo dell’indicazione facoltativa di qualità «prodotto di montagna» in merito all’origine degli alimenti destinati all’alimentazione animale. Gazzetta Ufficiale 181, 6.8.2018.

MacDonald, K. I. 2013. The morality of cheese: The paradox of defensive localism in a transnational cultural economy. Geoforum 44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoforum.2012.03.011

Mattioli, F. 2013: The property of food. Geographical indication, slow food, genuino clandestino and the politics of property. Ethnologia Europaea 43-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16995/ee.1115

May, S. 2013: Cheese, commons and commerce. Ethnologia Europaea 43-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16995/ee.1116

May, S. 2017: Shaping borders in culinary landscapes: European politics and everyday practices. Taste, Power, Tradition. Geographical Indications as Cultural Property. Göttingen Studies in Cultural property 10. Göttingen.

May, S., Sidali, K. L., Spiller, A., Tschofen, B. 2017: Taste, power, tradition. Geographical indications as cultural property. Göttingen Studies in Cultural property 10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.17875/gup2017-1004

Norme per la valorizzazione dei prodotti agricoli e alimentari di qualità. Bollettino Ufficiale Regionale 16, 16.8.2002.

O'Connor, B. 2004: The law of geographical indications. London.

Odredba o vključitvi sektorja mleka v program promocije in določitvi odstotka proizvodnje za začetek izvajanja promocije sheme izbrana kakovost. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 78/2015. Ljubljana

Ogorevc, K. 2007: Tržno vrednotenje tradicionalnih sirov v Sloveniji. Graduation thesis, University of Ljubljana. Ljubljana.

Parasecoli, F. 2017: Geographical indications, intellectual property and the global market. Taste, Power, Tradition. Geographical Indications as Cultural Property. Göttingen Studies in Cultural property 10.

Pascolini, M. 2008: Il formaggio: Saperi e sapori: I prodotti tipici come indicatori dell’identità del luogo. Udine.

Pasut, D., Romanzin, A., Bovolenta, S. 2016: Malga Montasio: Una storia friulana. San Michele all'Adige.

Ploeg, J. D. van der, Renting, H., Brunori, G., Knickel, K., Mannion, J., Marsden, T., Roest, K. de, Sevilla‐Guzmán, E., Ventura, F. 2000: Rural development: From practices and policies towards theory. Sociologia Ruralis 40-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9523.00156

Ploeg, J. D. van der, Roep, D. 2003: Multifunctionality and rural development: The actual situation in Europe. Multifunctional Agriculture. A New Paradigm for European Agriculture and Rural Development. Hampshire.

Pratt, J. 2007: Food values: The local and the authentic. Critique of Anthropology 27-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0308275X07080357

Riconoscimento della denominazione del formaggio tipico “Montasio”. Gazzetta Ufficiale 258, 6.11.1986.

Riconoscimento delle denominazioni circa i metodi di lavorazione, caratteristiche merceologiche e zone di produzione dei formaggi. Gazzetta Ufficiale 295, 22.12.1955.

Rinallo, D., Pitardi, V. 2019. Open conflict as differentiation strategy in geographical indications: The Bitto Rebels case. British Food Journal 121-12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-11-2018-0738

Rules on procedures for the recognition of special agricultural products or foodstuffs. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 76/2003b. Ljubljana.

Rules on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 23/2015b. Ljubljana.

Rules on the designation of geographical origin of 'Bovški sir'. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 47/2004a. Ljubljana.

Rules on the designation of geographical origin of 'Mohant'. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 47/2004b. Ljubljana.

Rules on the geographical denomination of origin of Tolminc. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 101/2003a. Ljubljana.

Rules on the procedure for the recognition of “selected quality” designation. Uradni list Republike Slovenije 79/2015a. Ljubljana.

Šmid Hribar, M., Razpotnik Visković, N., Bole, D. 2021: Models of stakeholder collaboration in food tourism experiences. Acta geographica Slovenica 61-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.8756

Specifikacija Izbrana kakovost: Mleko in mlečni izdelki. Potrjena specifikacija za mleko in mlečne izdelke z označbo »izbrana kakovost« z navedbo države pridelave in predelave št. 33203-7/2016/37. Internet: https://www.gov.si/assets/ministrstva/MKGP/DOKUMENTI/HRANA/SHEME-KAKOVOSTI/Specifikacije-izbrana-kakovost/IK_MLEKO_SPEC_notif_potrj_2_10_19.pdf (20. 6. 2020).

Thévenod-Mottet, E., Delphine, M. V. 2011: Legal debates surrounding geographical indications. Labels of Origin for Food: Local Developmnet, Global Recognition. Oxfordshire and Cambridge.

Topole, M., Pipan, P. 2020: Between traditions and innovations. Culinary boutique tourism in the hinterland of Mediterranean tourist destinations. Traditiones 49-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/Traditio2020490305

Tschofen, B. 2017: "Sura Kees." An Alpine nutritional relic as a ferment of regionality. Taste, Power, Tradition. Geographical Indications as Cultural Property. Göttingen Studies in Cultural property 10. Göttingen.

Tutela delle denominazioni di origine e tipiche dei formaggi. Gazzetta Ufficiale 99, 30.4.1954.

Welz, G. 2015: European products: Making and unmaking heritage in Cyprus. New York, Oxford. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctv6jmwb9

Welz, G. 2017: Pure products, messy genealogies: The contested origins of Halloumi cheese. Taste, Power, Tradition. Geographical Indications as Cultural Property. Göttingen Studies in Cultural property 10. Göttingen.

West, H. G. 2016: Artisanal foods and the cultural economy: Perspectives on craft, heritage, authenticity and reconnection. The Handbook of Food and Anthropology. London.

Published
2021-07-28
How to Cite
1.
Ledinek Lozej Špela. Labelling, certification and branding of cheeses in the southeastern Alps (Italy, Slovenia): Montasio, Bovec, Tolminc and Mohant cheese: . AGS [Internet]. 2021Jul.28 [cited 2021Sep.24];61(1):153–168. Available from: https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/ags/article/view/8746
Section
Special issue: Gastronomy, territory and tourism