The impact of large dams on fluvial sedimentation: The Iron Gates Reservoir on the Danube River

  • Constantin Nistor University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, Department of Geomorphology, Pedology, and Geomatics, Bucharest, Romania https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1978-9980
  • Ionuț Săvulescu University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, Department of Geomorphology, Pedology, and Geomatics, Bucharest, Romania https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6054-7954
  • Bogdan-Andrei Mihai University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, Department of Geomorphology, Pedology, and Geomatics, Bucharest, Romania https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5834-8697
  • Liliana Zaharia University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, Department of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bucharest, Romania https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3069-0113
  • Marina Vîrghileanu University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography, Department of Geomorphology, Pedology, and Geomatics, Bucharest, Romania http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4665-9620
  • Sorin Carablaisă University of Bucharest, Orșova Geographical Research Station Center, Bucharest, Romania
Keywords: hydropower dam, Iron Gates reservoir, sedimentation, topography, Cerna Gulf, Danube River

Abstract

Dam construction is one of the major human pressures impacting fluvial processes, including topography and hydro-sedimentary flows, as a result of the change in flow regime from fluvial to fluvial-lacustrine. This article investigates geomorphic changes at Iron Gates I, the largest reservoir on the Danube River, completed in 1972 for hydropower and navigation. The study focuses on a gulf area that emerged at the mouth of the Cerna River into the reservoir, highlighting spatial changes in topography and sediment distribution, based on a diachronic analysis of two datasets before and after the dam was built: one extracted from historical topographic maps and the other obtained from a bathymetric echo sounding survey, integrated within a GIS analysis. The results reveal the dominance of the sedimentation process, with an alluvium layer thickness up to 14 m. The current sediment pattern has changed the submerged morphology, leading to the formation of an alluvial fan at the mouth of the Cerna River and of a sedimentary bar between the Cerna Gulf and the Danube River’s channel. The siltation process together with the current underwater morphology limits ship traffic and the storage capacity of the reservoir.

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Published
2021-07-28
How to Cite
1.
Nistor C, Săvulescu I, MihaiB-A, Zaharia L, Vîrghileanu M, Carablaisă S. The impact of large dams on fluvial sedimentation: The Iron Gates Reservoir on the Danube River. AGS [Internet]. 2021Jul.28 [cited 2021Sep.24];61(1):41–55. Available from: https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/ags/article/view/7856