Household earthquake preparedness in Serbia: A study of selected municipalities

Vladimir M. Cvetković, Kevin Ronan, Rajib Shaw, Marina Filipović, Rita Mano, Jasmina Gačić, Vladimir Jakovljević

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.5445

Abstract

This article presents the results of a qualitative study of household earthquake and community-level preparedness in Serbia and its relationship to various demographic factors. A series of 1,018 face-to-face interviews were conducted at the beginning of 2017 in eight Serbian municipalities. The results show that the population is generally unprepared, with low percentages of reported enhanced preparedness levels. In addition to presenting its findings, the study also considers future research directions, including using this study as a basis for more detailed research and to assist in facilitating community-led programs and strategies to increase earthquake safety.

Keywords

geography; natural hazards; earthquake; preparedness; household; survey; Serbia

Full Text:

PDF

References

Able, E., Nelson, M. 1990: Circles of care: Work and identity in women’s lives. Albany.

Abolmasov, B., Jovanovski, M., Ferić, P., Mihalić, M. 2011: Losses due to historical earthquakes in the Balkan region: Overview of publicly available data. Geofizika 28-1.

Ainuddin, S., Routray, J. K. 2012: Institutional framework, key stakeholders and community preparedness for earthquake induced disaster management in Balochistan. Disaster Prevention and Management 21-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09653561211202683

Ajzen, I. 1991: The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

Ajzen, I. 2011: Theory of planned behavior. Psychology and Health 26-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2011.613995

Antonijević, S. K., Arroucau, P., Vlahović, G. 2013: Seismotectonic model of the Kraljevo 3 November 2010 Mw 5.4 earthquake sequence. Seismological Research Letters 84-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1785/0220120158

Ardalan, A., Sohrabizadeh, S. 2016: Assessing households preparedness for earthquakes: an exploratory study in the development of a valid and reliable Persian-version tool. PLoS Currents 25-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/currents.dis.ccc8697279713e66887b928b839d0920

Ashida, S., Robinson, E. L., Gay, J., Slagel, L. E., Ramirez, M. R. 2017: Personal disaster and emergency support networks of older adults in a rural community: changes after participation in a preparedness program. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 11-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2016.197

Azim, M. T., Islam, M. M. 2016: Earthquake preparedness of households in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a perceptual study. Environmental Hazards 15-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17477891.2016.1173006

Baker, E. J. 2011: Household preparedness for the aftermath of hurricanes in Florida. Applied Geography 31-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2010.05.002

Becker, J. S., Paton, D., Johnston, D. M., Ronan, K. R. 2012: A model of household preparedness for earthquakes: how individuals make meaning of earthquake information and how this influences preparedness. Natural Hazards 64-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-012-0238-x

Bethel, J. W., Foreman, A. N., Burke, S. C. 2011: Disaster preparedness among medically vulnerable populations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 40-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2010.10.020

Cvetković, V., Dragićević, S., Petrović, M., Mijaković, S., Jakovljević, V., Gačić, J. 2015: Knowledge and perception of secondary school students in Belgrade about earthquakes as natural disasters. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 24-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/39702

Cvetković, V., Ristanović, E., Gačić, J. 2018: Citizens attitudes about the emergency situations caused by epidemics in serbia. Iranian Journal of Public Health 47-8. DOI: https://doi.org/pmid: 30186797

Cvetković, V., Milašinović, S., Lazić, Ž. 2018: Examination of citizens’ attitudes towards providign support to vulnerable people and voluntereeing during disasters. Journal for Social Sciences TEME 42-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22190/TEME1801035C

Devi, A. W., Sharma, D. 2015: Awareness on earthquake preparedness: A key to safe life. International Journal of Nursing Research and Practice 2-2.

DeYoung, S. E., Peters, M. 2016: My community, my preparedness: The role of sense of place, community, and confidence in government in disaster readiness. International Journal of Mass Emergencies Disasters 34-2.

Dooley, D., Catalano, R., Mishra, S., Serxner, S. 1992: Earthquake preparedness: Predictors in a community survey. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 22-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb00984.x

Dragicević, S., Filipović, D., Kostadinov, S., Živkovic, N., Anđelković, G., Abolmasov, B. 2011: Natural hazard assessment for land–use planning in Serbia. International Journal of Environmental Research 5-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22059/IJER.2011.322

Duval, T. S., Mulilis, J. P. 1999: A person-relative-to-event (PrE) approach to negative threat appeals and earthquake preparedness: a field study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1999.tb01398.x

Ersing, R. L., Alhassan, O., Ayivor, J. S., Caruson, K. 2015: Enhancing hazard resilience among impoverished urban communities in Ghana: the role of women as catalysts for improvement. Cities at Risk: Planning for and Recovering from Natural Disasters. New York.

Eisenman, D. P., Wold, C., Fielding, J., Long, A., Setodji, C., Hickey, S., Gelberg, L. 2006: Differences in individual-level terrorism preparedness in Los Angeles County. American journal of preventive medicine 30-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2005.09.001

FEMA, 2009: Personal preparedness in America: Findings from the Citizen Corps National Survey.

Flynn, J., Slovic, P., Mertz, C. K., Carlisle, C. 1999: Public support for earthquake risk mitigation in Portland, Oregon. Risk Analysis 19-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006969526398

Fox, M. H., White, G. W., Rooney, C., Rowland, J. L. 2007: Disaster preparedness and response for persons with mobility impairments: results from the University of Kansas Nobody Left Behind study. Journal of Disability Policy Studies 17-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/10442073070170040201

Hackl, F., Halla, M., Pruckner, G. J. 2007: Volunteering and income–the fallacy of the good Samaritan? Kyklos 60-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6435.2007.00360.x

Heller, K., Alexander, D. B., Gatz, M., Knight, B. G., Rose, T. 2005: Social and personal factors as predictors of earthquake preparation: The role of support provision, network discussion, negative affect, age, and education. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 35-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2005.tb02127.x

Hirayama, Y. 2000: Collapse and reconstruction: Housing recovery policy in Kobe after the Hanshin Great Earthquake. Housing Studies 15-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02673030082504

Internet 1: https://www.shakeout.org/ (02.05.2018).

Internet 2: https://www.shakeout.govt.nz (02.05.2018).

Jamshidi, E., Majdzadeh, R., Namin, M. S., Ardalan, A., Majdzadeh, B., Seydali, E. 2016: Effectiveness of community participation in earthquake preparedness: a community-based participatory intervention study of Tehran. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 10-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2015.156

Johnson, B. B., Nakayachi, K. 2017: Examining associations between citizens' beliefs and attitudes about uncertainty and their earthquake risk judgments, preparedness intentions, and mitigation policy support in Japan and the United States. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 22. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.02.019

Johnston, D., Becker, J., Paton, D. 2012: Multi-agency community engagement during disaster recovery: Lessons from two New Zealand earthquake events. Disaster Prevention and Management 21-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09653561211220034

Johnson, V. A., Johnston, D. M., Ronan, K. R., Peace, R. 2014: Evaluating children’s learning of adaptive response capacities from ShakeOut, an earthquake and tsunami drill in two Washington State school districts. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 11-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/jhsem-2014-0012

Joshi, A., Kale, S., Chandel, S., Pal, D. K. 2015: Likert scale: Explored and explained. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology 7-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9734/BJAST/2015/14975

Kapucu, N. 2008: Culture of preparedness: household disaster preparedness. Disaster Prevention and Management 17-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09653560810901773

Kirschenbaum, A. 2006: Families and disaster behavior: a reassessment of family preparedness. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 24-1.

Kirschenbaum, A. A., Rapaport, C., Canetti, D. 2017: The impact of information sources on earthquake preparedness. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2016.10.018

Kohn, S., Eaton, J. L., Feroz, S., Bainbridge, A. A., Hoolachan, J., Barnett, D. J. 2012: Personal disaster preparedness: an integrative review of the literature. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 6-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/dmp.2012.47

Komac, B., Zorn, M., Gavrilov, B., Marković, S. 2013: Natural hazards – some introductory thoughts. Acta geographica Slovenica 53-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS53300

Levac, J., Toal-Sullivan, D., O’Sullivan, T. L. 2012: Household emergency preparedness: a literature review. Journal of Community Health 37-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-011-9488-x

Lindell, M. K., Perry, R. W. 2000: Household adjustment to earthquake hazard: A review of research. Environment and Behavior 32-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/00139160021972621

Liu, Q., Ruan, X., Shi, P. 2011: Selection of emergency shelter sites for seismic disasters in mountainous regions: Lessons from the 2008 Wenchuan Ms 8.0 Earthquake, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 40-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2010.07.014

Lukić, T., Gavrilov, M. B., Marković, S. B., Zorn, M., Komac, B., Mladjan, D., Djordjević, J., Milanović, M., Vasiljević, D. A., Vujićič, M. D., Kuzmanović, B., Prentović, R. 2013: Classification of the natural disasters between the legislation and application: experience of the Republic of Serbia. Acta geographica Slovenica 53-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS53301

Maddux, J. E., Rogers, R. W. 1983: Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 19-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(83)90023-9

Marović, M., Djoković, I., Pesić, L., Radovanović, S., Toljić, M., Gerzina, N. 2002: Neotectonics and seismicity of the southern margin of the Pannonian basin in Serbia. EGU Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series 3.

Marti, M., Stauffacher, M., Matthes, J., Wiemer, S. 2018: Communicating earthquake preparedness: the influence of induced mood, perceived risk, and gain or loss frames on homeowners’ attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. Risk Analysis 38-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.12875

Matsuda, Y., Okada, N. 2006: Community diagnosis for sustainable disaster preparedness. Journal of Natural Disaster Science 28-1.

Mileti, D. S., Darlington, J. D. 1997: The role of searching in shaping reactions to earthquake risk information. Social Problems 44-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3096875

Mishra, S., Suar, D. 2012: Effects of anxiety, disaster education, and resources on disaster preparedness behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 42-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2011.00853.x

Mulilis, J. P., Duval, T. S., Lippa, R. 1990: The effects of a large destructive local earthquake on earthquake preparedness as assessed by an earthquake preparedness scale. Natural Hazards 3-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00124393

Mulilis, J. P., Lippa, R. 1990: Behavioral change in earthquake preparedness due to negative threat appeals: A test of protection motivation theory. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 20-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1990.tb00429.x

Murphy, S. T., Cody, M., Frank, L. B., Glik, D., Ang, A. 2009: Predictors of emergency preparedness and compliance. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness 3-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/dmp.0b013e3181a9c6c5

Muttarak, R., Pothisiri, W. 2013: The role of education on disaster preparedness: case study of 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes on Thailand’s Andaman Coast. Ecology and Society 18-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5751/es-06101-180451

Norris, F. H., Friedman, M. J., Watson, P. J., Byrne, C. M., Diaz, E., Kaniasty, K. 2002: 60,000 disaster victims speak: Part I. An empirical review of the empirical literature, 1981–2001. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and biological processes 65-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1521/psyc.65.3.207.20173

Page, L., Rubin, J., Amlôt, R., Simpson, J., Wessely, S. 2008: Are Londoners prepared for an emergency? A longitudinal study following the London bombings. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science 6-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/bsp.2008.0043

Panić, M., Kovačević-Majkić, J., Miljanović, D., Miletić, R. 2013: Importance of natural disaster education-case study of the earthquake near the city of Kraljevo: First results. Journal of the Geographical Institute »Jovan Cvijic« SASA 63-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2298/IJGI121121001P

Paton, D. 2003: Disaster preparedness: a social-cognitive perspective. Disaster Prevention and Management 12-3. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09653560310480686

Paton, D., Anderson, E., Becker, J., Petersen, J. 2015: Developing a comprehensive model of hazard preparedness: lessons from the Christchurch earthquake. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2014.11.011

Paton, D., Sagala, S., Okada, N., Jang, L. J., Bürgelt, P. T., Gregg, C. E. 2010: Making sense of natural hazard mitigation: Personal, social and cultural influences. Environmental Hazards 9-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3763/ehaz.2010.0039

Paul, B. K., Bhuiyan, R. H. 2010: Urban earthquake hazard: Perceived seismic risk and preparedness in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Disasters 34-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7717.2009.01132.x

Pešić, J. 2006: Persistence of traditionalist value orientations in Serbia. Sociologija 48-4.

Ronan, K., Johnston, D. 2005: Promoting Community Resilience in Disasters: The Role for Schools, Youth, and Families. Boston.

Ronan, R., Johnston, M. 2005: Promoting community resilience in disasters. New York.

Rossi, P. P. H. 1990: Of human bonding: Parent-child relations across the life course. Hawthorne.

Russell, L. A., Goltz, J. D., Bourque, L. B. 1995: Preparedness and hazard mitigation actions before and after two earthquakes. Environment and Behavior 27-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916595276002

Rüstemli, A., Karanci, A. N. 1999: Correlates of earthquake cognitions and preparedness behavior in a victimized population. The Journal of Social Psychology 139-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00224549909598364

Sattler, D. N., Kaiser, C. F., Hittner, J. B. 2000: Disaster preparedness: Relationships among prior experience, personal characteristics, and distress. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 30-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2000.tb02527.x

Shaw, R., Shiwaku, K., Kobayashi, H., Kobayashi, M. 2004: Linking experience, knowledge, perception and earthquake preparedness. Disaster Prevention and Management 13-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/09653560410521689

Solberg, C., Rossetto, T., Joffe, H. 2010: The social psychology of seismic hazard adjustment: re-evaluating the international literature. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 10-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-10-1663-2010

Spittal, J., McClure, J., Siegert, J., Walkey, H. 2008: Predictors of two types of earthquake preparation: survival activities and mitigation activities. Environment and Behavior 40-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916507309864

Spittal, M. J., Walkey, F. H., McClure, J., Siegert, R. J., Ballantyne, K. E. 2006: The earthquake readiness scale: The development of a valid and reliable unifactorial measure. Natural Hazards 39-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-005-2369-9

Tanida, N. 1996: What happened to elderly people in the great Hanshin earthquake. British Medical Journal 313-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.313.7065.1133

Tomio, J., Sato, H., Matsuda, Y., Koga, T., Mizumura, H. 2014: Household and community disaster preparedness in Japanese provincial city: a population–based household survey. Advances in Anthropology 4-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/aa.2014.42010

Vukasinovic, M. 1987: Seizmološka mapa Srbije za povratni period od 100 godina. Belgrade.

WHO, 2008. Manual for the Health Care of Children in Humanitarian Emergencies. World Heath Organization. Geneva.

Woersching, J. C., Snyder, A. E. 2003: Earthquakes in El Salvador: a descriptive study of health concerns in a rural community and the clinical implications, part I. Disaster Management Response 1-4.

Zorn, M. 2018: Natural disasters and less developed countries. Nature, Tourism and Ethnicity as Drivers of (De)Marginalization. Perspectives on Geographical Marginality 3. Cham. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59002-8_4

Zorn, M., Komac, B. 2015: Naravne nesreče in družbena neodgovornost. Geografski vestnik 87-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/GV87205



DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/AGS.5445

Copyright (c) 2019 Acta geographica Slovenica

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

© Acta geographica Slovenica | P. B. 306, SI-1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia | ags@zrc-sazu.si | tel: +386 1 470 65 09