Fractal analysis of spatio-temporal changes of forest cover in Istanbul, Turkey




fractal analysis, fractal dimension, lacunarity index, spatio-temporal changes, forest cover, land use change


In this study, the spatio-temporal changes in forest cover in Istanbul, one of the provinces with the most changes in forest areas in Turkey due to the pressure of urbanization and industrialization, were investigated using fractal analysis. The areal changes and changes in spatial patterns were determined to assess the spatio-temporal changes in the period 2000–2017. Fragmentation/compactness and heterogeneity/homogeneity of forest cover were determined by fractal dimension and lacunarity index, respectively. The results show that the forest areas have significantly decreased and become more fragmented and heterogeneous. In conclusion, this study reveals that fractal analysis can provide considerable information in the examination and interpretation of spatial changes in forest areas.


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How to Cite

Ozturk D. Fractal analysis of spatio-temporal changes of forest cover in Istanbul, Turkey. AGS [Internet]. 2022 Jun. 21 [cited 2022 Jul. 6];62(1):7-20. Available from: