Plant species occupy different habitats on the fortress walls in Elbasan, Albania

  • Ermelinda Gjeta Biology Dept., Universiteti 'Aleksander Xhuvani', Elbasan, Albania
  • Jonathan Titus Biology Dept., SUNY-Fredonia, Fredonia, NY 14063 USA
  • Priscilla Titus Western New York Land Conservancy, East Aurora, NY USA
Keywords: colonization, urban ecology, wall flora


Vegetated walls are an important habitat for urban biodiversity. We conducted an analysis of the plant species that grow on the Elbasan, Albania fortress walls. Walls vary in age from 4th to 21st century, and in composition. On 71 walls we assessed 2,787 plants of 35 species and recorded plant size, presence of flowers or fruits, height from the ground, crevice depth, wall aspect, wall age and composition, and distance to nearest opposing wall. Eleven species, two of which were ferns, composed 93.8% of the plants. The vast majority of plants flowered and fruited on the walls. Plant density ranged from 0.1-70 plants/m2. Species distributions varied significantly based on height on the wall, crevice depth, aspect and distance to the opposing wall. These differences may be influenced by dispersal mechanisms, moisture, substrate composition, and other important environmental factors. For example, Antirrhinum majus was generally found high on south facing walls in deep cracks whereas Umbilicus rupestris was found lower on north facing walls in shallower cracks. It is important that older walls colonized by plants be maintained such that a native flora can persist where natural rocky features are lacking.


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How to Cite
GjetaE., TitusJ. and TitusP. (2020) “Plant species occupy different habitats on the fortress walls in Elbasan, Albania”, Hacquetia, 20(1), pp. 81–90. Available at: (Accessed: 4March2021).