Obnovitev polsuhih travišč v jugozahodnem predalpskem svetu Avstrije – raziskava vzorcev zgodnje spontane naselitve

Philipp SENGL, Viktoria WAGNER, Martin MAGNES

Povzetek

Preučevali smo vzorce zgodnje naselitve vrst med obnovo polsuhih travišč na dveh lokacijah v jugovzhodni Avstriji. Travišča smo prepustili pasivni obnovi brez vnosa propagul na nekdanjo obdelano površino in sadovnjak jablan. Obe površini smo predhodno obdelali tako, da smo polje preorali, sadovnjak pa posekali in nato kosili vsako leto. Po štirih letih od začetka projekta smo spremljali, ali se na obnovljenih površinah pojavljajo tarčne vrste s sosednjih polsuhih travišč. Zanimalo nas je: 1) Ali pasivna obnova omogoča naselitev tarčnih vrst? 2) Ali lahko z abiotskimi dejavniki ali oddaljenostjo ciljnega travišča razložimo vzorce zgodnje naselitve? 3) Ali lahko z rastlinskimi znaki napovemo uspešnost naselitve različnih vrst? Na vsaki lokaciji smo postavili poskusne ploskve 4 m × 4 m, kjer smo vzorčili vegetacijo, abiotske dejavnike (vsebost kalija in fosforja v tleh, pH tal, naklon) in izmerili minimalno oddaljenost od ciljnega travišča. Testirali smo korelacijo med abiotskimi dejavniki, rastlinskimi znaki in uspešnostjo naselitve vrst. Vzorci kolonizacije so bolj odvisni od bližine ciljnega travišča kot pa od abiotskih dejavnikov tal, poleg tega se je vegetacija razvijala drugače na nekdanji njivi kot v sadovnjaku. Na obeh rastiščih so v zgodnjih fazah obnove prevladovale konkurenčno uspešnejše vrste zveze Arrhenatherion in termofilnih ruderalnih združb. Pasivna obnova polsuhih travišč na nekdanjih
obdelovanih površinah bo verjetno neuspešna brez predhodnega oranja, odstranjevanja hranil in dodajanja propagul redkih vrst.

Ključne besede

uspešnost naselitve, ekološka strategija, Festuco-Brometea, rastlinski znaki, sekundarna sukcesija, Štajerska

Celotno besedilo:

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