Of Times, Religions, and Revolutions

One Unites into Two





time, Islam, One, onto-theology, revolution


Starting from the impact of biblical teachings on Islam, the first part of this article attempts to show the divergent paths that Christianity and Islam have taken when confronted with the three dimensions of time (chronos, kairos, krisis). The article aims to elucidate the distinct onto-theologies of the two religious discourses by analysing various examples that illustrate this divergence. Consequently, the onto-theology of Islam can be encapsulated as “One unites in two,” in contrast to the onto-theology of Christianity, which can be formulated as “One divides into two.” In the second part of the article, one of the political implications of the onto-theology of “One united in two” is examined in depth in a socio-political context, showing how the conceptualisation of such a context can only be done adequately if its onto-theological dimension is taken into account.


Download data is not yet available.


Algar, Hamid. “Velayat-E Faqih: Theory of governance in Shi‘ite Islam.” In Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Updated August 23, 2023. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/velayat-e-faqih.

Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali. “Muḥammad the Paraclete and ‘Alī the Messiah: New Remarks on the Origins of Islam and of Shi‘ite Imamology.” Der Islam 95, no. 1 (2018): 30–64. https://doi.org/10.1515/islam-2018-0002.

Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali. “The Shi’is and the Qur’an: Between Apocalypse, Civil Wars, and Empire.” Religions 13, no. 1 (2022): article 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel13010001.

Brockopp, Jonathan E. “The Rise of Islam in a Judeo-Christian Context.” In Light upon Light: Essays in Islamic Thought and History in Honor of Gerhard Bowering, edited by Jamal J. Elias and Bilal Orfali, 25–44. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2020.

Chamankhah, Leila. The Conceptualization of Guardianship in Iranian Intellectual History (1800–1989): Reading Ibn ‘Arabī’s Theory of Wilāya in the Shī‘a World. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.

Cole, Andrew. The Birth of Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014.

Comay, Rebecca. Mourning Sickness: Hegel and the French Revolution. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011.

Cook, David. Studies in Muslim Apocalyptic. Princeton: The Darwin Press, 2002.

Copjec, Joan. “Battle Fatigue: Kiarostami and Capitalism.” In Lacan Contra Foucault: Subjectivity, Sex, and Politics, edited by Nadia Bou Ali and Rohit Goel, 139–59. London and New York: Bloomsbury, 2018.

Copjec, Joan. “The Imaginal World and Modern Oblivion: Kiarostami’s Zig-Zag.” Filozofski Vestnik 37, no. 2 (2016): 21–58.

Crone, Patricia, and Michael Cook. Hagarism: The Making of the Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Dolar, Mladen. “The Phrenology of Spirit.” In Supposing the Subject, edited by Joan Copjec, 64–83. London: Verso, 1994.

Dolar, Mladen. “What’s the Time? On Being Too Early or Too Late in Hegel’s Philosophy.” In “Hegel 250—Too Late?,” edited by Mladen Dolar, 31–49. Special issue, Problemi International 4 (2020).

Fink, Bruce. “Perversion.” In Perversion and the Social Relation, edited by Molly Anne Rothenberg, Dennis Foster, and Slavoj Žižek, 38–67. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

Grueber, Wesley B., and Alvaro Sagasti. “Self-avoidance and Tiling: Mechanisms of Dendrite and Axon Spacing.” Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology 2, no. 9 (September 2010): a001750. http://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a001750.

Hartog, François. Chronos: The West Confronts Time. Translated by S. R. Gilbert. New York: Columbia University Press, 2022.

Lacan, Jacques. The Object Relation. Translated by Adrian Price. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan, edited by Jacques-Alain Miller, book 4. Cambridge: Polity, 2021.

Mannoni, Octave. “I Know Well, but All the Same . . .” In Perversion and the Social Relation, edited by Molly Anne Rothenberg, Dennis Foster, and Slavoj Žižek, 68–92. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003.

Miller, Jacques-Alain. “On Perversion.” In Reading Seminars I and II: Lacan’s Return to Freud, edited by Richard Feldstein, Bruce Fink, and Maire Jaanus, 306–20. New York: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Nedoh, Boštjan. Ontology and Perversion: Deleuze, Agamben, Lacan. London: Rowman and Littlefield, 2019.

Rosenzweig, Franz. The Star of Redemption. Translated by Barbara E. Galli. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005.

Ruda, Frank. “What Is To Be Judged? On Infinitely Infinite Judgments and Their Consequences.” In Žižek and Law, edited by Laurent de Sutter, 153–73. Oxfordshire: Routledge, 2015.

Swales, Stephanie S. Perversion: A Lacanian Psychoanalytic Approach to the Subject. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Swales, Stephanie S. “Neoliberalism and Liminality: Perverse Cruelties in the Age of the Capitalist Discourse.” In Lacan’s Cruelty: Perversion beyond Philosophy, Culture and Clinic, edited by Meera Lee, 185–211. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2022.

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. “Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran.” Refworld. Accessed May 16, 2023. https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b56710.html.

Yip, Zhiqi Candice, and Maxwell G. Heiman. “Duplication of a Single Neuron in C. elegans Reveals a Pathway for Dendrite Tiling by Mutual Repulsion.” Cell Reports 15, no. 10 (June 2016): 2109–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2016.05.003.

Zupančič, Alenka. Let Them Rot: Antigone’s Parallax. New York: Fordham University Press, 2023.

Zupančič, Alenka. The Odd One In: On Comedy. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008.

Žižek, Slavoj. Sex and the Failed Absolute. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2020.

Žižek, Slavoj. Tarrying with the Negative: Kant, Hegel, and the Critique of Ideology. Durham: Duke University Press, 1993.




How to Cite

Reihanzadeh, A. (2023). Of Times, Religions, and Revolutions: One Unites into Two. Filozofski Vestnik, 44(3), 77–107. https://doi.org/10.3986/fv.44.3.04



Structures, Limits, Objects