The creation of collapse dolines: A 3D modeling approach
We present a 3D numerical karst evolution model describing mechanisms governing the evolution of collapse dolines. The results confirm the current state of the art of the knowledge about the conditions necessary for a collapse doline to grow. We demonstrate that these geological features develop in karst aquifers, above subsurface rivers flowing through active cave systems or mechanically unstable zones. The mechanisms of growth of single/isolated collapse dolines are generally two dimensional and can be modeled with very dense numerical models. On the other hand, our results demonstrate that there can be more than one location, within a karst system, where the conditions allow the development of a collapse doline. For such complex scenarios a 3D modeling approach and a detailed knowledge of the hydro-geological situation is required in order to correctly predict and describe the development of collapse dolines.
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