https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/issue/feed Acta Carsologica 2019-12-20T11:33:28+01:00 Franci Gabrovšek gabrovsek@zrc-sazu.si Open Journal Systems <p>Karst areas occupy 10-20 % if ice free land. Dissolution of rock by natural waters has given rise to specific landscape and underground. &nbsp;Karst surface features and caves have attracted man's curiosity since the dawn of humanity and have been a focus to scientific studies since more than half of milenia.</p> <p>Acta Carsologica publishes orginial research papers and reviews, letters, essays and reports covering topics related to specific of karst areas.&nbsp;These comprise, but are not limited to karst geology, hydrology and geomorphology, speleology, hydrogeology, biospeleology and history of karst science.</p> <p><strong>Acta Carsologica is puiblished by the&nbsp;<a href="http://www.sazu.si/en/">Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts&nbsp;</a>and&nbsp;<a href="http://izrk.zrc-sazu.si/en#v">Karst Research Institute</a>&nbsp;of the &nbsp;<a href="http://www.zrc-sazu.si/en/node">Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts</a>.</strong></p> https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7446 Origin of the Jezero v Ledvicah lake; a depression in a gutter-shaped karstic aquifer (Julian Alps, NW Slovenia) 2019-12-09T13:06:03+01:00 Bostjan Rožič bostjan.rozic@ntf.uni-lj.si Tomislav Popit tomi.popit@ntf.uni-lj.si Luka Gale luka.gale@ntf.uni-lj.si Timotej Verbovšek timotej.verbovsek@ntf.uni-lj.si Ines Vidmar ines.vidmar@ntf.uni-lj.si Matej Dolenec matej.dolenec@ntf.uni-lj.si Petra Žvab Rožič petra.zvabrozic@ntf.uni-lj.si <p>The Julian Alps are composed almost exclusively of Triassic to Lower Jurassic carbonates, which results in a karstified high-al­pine landscape. In such settings, large water accumulations are not expected and precipitated water drains vertically, gathers in deep, large-scale aquifers, and outflows in large karstic springs located in deeply incised valleys. Some small lakes, however, exist in high alpine areas. Most commonly, they formed above impermeable glacial sediments and are generally characterized by stagnant waters. Jezero v Ledvicah lake, which is one of the seven lakes in the Triglav Lakes Valley, is an exception, because it shows high subaqueous water inflow and outflow and occurs among highly karstified and permeable carbonates. Combining previous research with our new, detailed geological mapping of the lake surroundings and sedimentary research on the Lower Jurassic strata, we propose a hydrogeological model with the aim of explaining the extraordinary behaviour of the lake. We propose that Jezero v Ledvicah lake: A) is part of the “gutter-shaped” aquifer with perched groundwater that is situated below the floor of the Triglav Lakes Valley; B) barriers of the aquifer are structural (faults and thrust) and stratigraphic (clay interlayers in Lower Jurassic limestone); C) the lake formed in a structural, hydrogeological and morphological depression within this aquifer; D) the groundwater of the aquifer is re­charged not solely from the surface directly above the aquifer but additionally by subterraneous inflow from the overlying Slatna Nappe aquifer; and E) groundwater outflows from the aquifer at the southern end of the Triglav Lakes Valley, where the Lower Jurassic limestone pinches out.</p><p><strong>Key words:</strong> high-alpine lake, karstic aquifer, Julian Alps, Triglav Lakes Valley, Jurassic limestone, Southern Alps.</p><p><strong>Nastanek Jezera v Ledvicah – globel v žlebu podobnem kraškem vodonosniku (Julijske Alpe, SZ Slovenija)</strong></p><p>Julijske Alpe skoraj v celoti sestavljajo triasni in jurski karbonati, kar se odraža v morfologiji kraške visokogorske pokrajine. V tovrstnih razmerah ni pričakovati večjih površinskih pojavov vode, saj padavinska voda pronica vertikalno in se akumulira v obsežnih globokih vodonosnikih, iz teh pa izteka v izdatnih kraških izvirih, ki so v globoko vrezanih dolinah. Kljub temu v alpskem visokogorju obstaja nekaj manjših jezer. Večina jih je nastala nad neprepustnimi ledeniškimi sedimenti in jih lahko opredelimo kot stoječe vode. Jezero v Ledvicah, ki je eno izmed sedmih jezer v dolini Triglavskih jezer, je izjema, saj ima močno podzemno napajanje in iztok (je pretočno) ter se pojavlja med močno zakraselimi in prepustnimi karbonati. Na podlagi predhodnih raziskav, izdelave nove geološke karte okolice jezera in sedimentoloških raziskav spodnjejurskih plasti predlagamo strukturno-geološki in hidrogeološki model, da bi razložili nastanek in lokacijo jezera. Naše ugotovitve kažejo, da je A) Jezero v Ledvicah del žlebu podobnega vodonosnika z visečo podzemno vodo, ki se pojavlja v jurskih plasteh pod dnom doline Triglavskih jezer, B) da so hidrogeološke bariere vodonosnika strukturne (prelomi in nariv) in stratigrafske (plasti gline v spodnjejurskem apnencu), C) da je jezero nastalo v strukturni, hidrogeološki in morfološki depresiji znotraj vodonosnika, D) da se podzemna voda ne napaja izključno iz padavin, ki padejo neposredno na površino vodonosnika, ampak dodatno s podzemnim napajanjem iz višje ležečega vodonosnika Slatenske tektonske krpe in E) da podzemna voda izteka iz vodonosnika na južnem delu doline Triglavskih jezer, kjer se plastnati spodnjejurski apnenci (in s tem vodonosnik) izklinjajo.</p><p><strong>Ključne besede:</strong> visokogorsko jezero, kraški vodonosnik, Julijske Alpe, dolina Triglavskih jezer, jurski apnenec, Južne Alpe.</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7441 Evolution of Mantled Karst Along the Blue Ridge-Great Valley Margin, USA: An Environment of Sediment Accumulation and Possible Preservation 2019-12-20T11:30:47+01:00 Todd Grote tdgrote@ius.edu <p>The Appalachian landscape provides an excellent opportunity to examine an environment that promotes sediment subsidence, accumulation and possible preservation: mantled karst. Mantled karst exists along the Blue Ridge-Great Valley margin from south-central Pennsylvania to central Virginia. Topographically, the mantled karst contains low-relief irregular topography with abundant surface depressions, some of which contain ponds, and in places lacks continual surface drainage and springs. Sand and gravel quarries along the valley margin expose predominantly stream flow, hyperconcentrated flow, debris flow and hillslope (colluvial) deposits that mantle karstic Paleozoic bedrock and carbonate residuum. Unconformable and sometimes erosive contacts between carbonate residuum and clastic sediments, and soft-sediment deformation features have been observed within exposures suggesting subsidence into accumulation and/or preservation space created by geochemical dissolution and collapse that continues today. The likelihood of long-term survival in the geological record is dependent upon the relationship between the subsiding sediment and geomorphic base level. The Blue Ridge-Great Valley mantled karst likely contains both short-term accumulation space that is closer to geomorphic base level, thus more prone to removal by fluvial processes, and preservation space, which occurs well below geomorphic base level, where sedimentary sequences may be stored for prolonged periods of time. Ultimately, both accumulation and preservation spaces can provide insight into depositional processes, landscapes and possibly paleoenvironmental conditions, but the geologic record becomes more distorted and fragmented further back into deep time and as this landscape evolves into the future.</p><p><br /><strong>Key words:</strong> karst, sedimentary environments, subsidence, preservation potential, landscape evolution.</p><p><strong>Razvoj pokritega krasa na robu območja Blue Ridge – Great Valley, ZDA: okolja akumulacije in ohranjanja sedimentov</strong></p><p><br />Pokriti kras Apalačev nudi izjemne možnosti preučevanja odlaganja, akumulacije in ohranjanja sedimentov. Za pokriti kras na robu območja Blue Ridge – Great Valley med južno-osrednjo Pensilvanijo in osrednjo Virginijo so značilna topografsko razgibana nižavja s številnimi depresijami, ki so lahko tudi ojezerjene, površinski odtok pa je ponekod nepovezan. Kamnolomi peska in grušča vzdolž roba doline razkrivajo različne fluvialne in pobočne sedimente, ki pokrivajo zakrasele paleozojske karbonate in njihov reziduum. Nekonformni in erozijski stiki med karbonatnim reziduumom in klastičnimi sedimenti ter deformacijske oblike v mehkih sedimentih kažejo na akumulacijo in ohranjanje sedimentov v kraških prostorih. Časovna stabilnost sedimentov je odvisna tudi od položaja ugrezanja sedimentov glede na erozijski nivo: prostori akumulacije so blizu erozijskega nivoja in zato podvrženi fluvialnemu odnašanju, prostori ohranjanja pa so pod erozijskim nivojem, zato so tam sedimentna zaporedja ohranjena precej dlje. Preučevanje prostorov akumulacije in prostorov ohranjanja nam omogoča boljše razumevaje razvoja pokrajine in sedimentacijskih procesov v njej. Starejši zapisi so slabše ohranjeni in bolj razdrobljeni.</p><p><br /><strong>Ključne besede:</strong> kras, sedimentacijska okolja, ugrezanje, potencial ohranjanja sedimentov, razvoj površja</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7305 Quantification and evaluation of soil organic carbon and its fractions: case study from the Classical Karst, SW Slovenia 2019-12-20T11:30:07+01:00 Hui Yang yanghui-kdl@karst.ac.cn Mitja Prelovsek mitja.prelovsek@zrc-sazu.si Fen Huang hfen@karst.ac.cn Chunlai Zhang chlzhang@karst.ac.cn Jianhua Cao jhcaogl@karst.ac.cn Nataša Ravbar natasa.ravbar@zrc-sazu.si <p> Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical measure of soil organic matter (SOM) content. SOM plays a vital role in ecosystem services, soil fertility, soil water retention capacity, and carbon cycling. SOC can be partitioned into various carbon fractions, which exhibit diverse stability and chemical compositions that are influenced variably by lithology as well as biological and cli­matic processes. A better understanding of SOC and the influ­ence of different bedrock types on carbon fractions could facili­tate the evaluation of the fate and stability of SOC. The present study is focused on the concentrations and characteristics of different SOC fractions (e.g., Labile organic carbon, LOC; Re­calcitrant organic carbon, ROC; Calcium-bound organic car­bon, Ca-SOC; Iron/aluminium-bound organic carbon, Fe/Al-SOC) in forest soils associated with different bedrock lithology under similar climate conditions in the centre of the ‘Classical Karst’, and evaluates influence of the geological environment on SOC. SOC and SOC fraction concentrations decreased with an increase in depth in all profiles, indicating stabilized soil profiles. SOC values (9.7–45.5 g∙kg-1) were consistent with the findings of other studies on soils in the region. ROC and Fe/Al-SOC (51.5–65.8 % and 68.0–73.3 %, respectively) were the ma­jor SOC fractions, while Ca-SOC accounted for a considerably lower proportion (6.4–7.4 %) of the SOC contents. Key factors influencing SOC contents were calcite (expressed as calcium oxide) and clay contents, which represent mineral complexes stabilizing SOC. Overall Fe2O3 and Al2O3 concentration did not explain differences in SOC nor its fractions, potentially due to the importance of chemical/mineral forms of Fe- and Al-related minerals (reactivity). Soils on carbonate rocks, which are richer in clay and CaO, had 6.35 g∙kg-1 (28 percentage points) higher concentrations of SOC average when compared with soils on siliciclastic rock, due to higher concentrations of stabilized SOC fractions. The results demonstrate that bedrock lithology and pedogenesis are key factors influencing SOM stabilization.</p><p><strong>Key words:</strong> karst soil, soil organic carbon, labile organic carbon, recalcitrant organic carbon, calcium-bound organic carbon, iron/aluminium-bound organic carbon.</p><p><strong>Kvantifikacija in vrednotenje organskega ogljika in njegovih frakcij v tleh: primer s Klasičnega Krasa, JZ Slovenija</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Z meritvami organskega ogljika v prsteh (SOC) izražamo vsebnost organskih snovi v prsteh (SOM). SOM igra ključno vlogo pri ekosistemskih storitvah, rodovitnosti, zmogljivosti zadrževanja vode in kroženju ogljika. SOC lahko razdelimo na različne ogljikove frakcije, ki kažejo različno stabilnost in kemično sestavo, na katero različno vplivajo litološka zgradba, biološki in podnebni procesi. Boljše razumevanje SOC in vpliv različnih vrst matične podlage na ogljikove frakcije bi lahko olajšala oceno stabilnosti SOC. Ta študija preučuje koncentracije in dinamiko različnih frakcij SOC (npr. labilni organski ogljik, LOC; rekalcitrantni organski ogljik, ROC; organski ogljik, vezan na kalcij; organski ogljik, vezan na železo/aluminij, Fe/Al-SOC) v gozdnih prsteh in povezanost z različno litološko zgradbo v podobnih podnebnih razmerah. Prostorsko se študija osredotoča na območje klasičnega krasa. Koncentracija SOC in njegove frakcije so se z naraščajočo globino v vseh profilih zmanjšale, kar kaže na relativno uravnotežene profile prsti. Vrednosti SOC (9,7–45,5 g∙kg-1) so skladne z ugotovitvami drugih raziskav prsti v regiji. ROC in Fe/Al-SOC (51,5–65,8 % oziroma 68,0–73,3 %) sta bili glavni komponenti SOC, medtem ko je za Ca-SOC značilen bistveno nižji delež (6,4–7,4 %). Ključna dejavnika, ki vplivata na vsebnost SOC, sta vsebnost kalcita (izražen kot kalcijev oksid) in gline; tadva s SOC tvorita mineralne komplekse, ki stabilizirajo SOC. Vrednosti Fe2O3 in Al2O3 ne pojasnjujejo razlik SOC niti njegovih frakcij, kar je lahko posledica različnega vpliva kemičnih/mineralnih oblik železovih oz. aluminijevih spojin na reaktivnost. Prsti na karbonatnih kamninah, ki so bogatejše z delci velikosti glin in CaO, so imele zaradi višjih koncentracij stabiliziranih SOC frakcij za 6,35 g∙kg-1 (28 odstotnih točk) višje povprečne vrednosti SOC v primerjavi prstmi na siliciklastičnih (flišnih) kamninah. Rezultati kažejo, da sta osnovna dejavnika, ki vplivata na stabilizacijo SOM, litološka zgradba in pedogeneza.</p><p><strong>Ključne besede:</strong> kraške prsti, organski ogljik v tleh, labilni organski ogljik, rekalcitrantni organski ogljik, organski ogljik, vezan na kalcij, organski ogljik, vezan na železo/aluminij.</p><p> </p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7145 A multiparameter analysis of environmental gradients related to hydrological conditions in a binary karst system (underground course of the Pivka River, Slovenia) 2019-12-20T11:24:20+01:00 Janez Mulec janez.mulec@guest.arnes.si Metka Petrič petric@zrc-sazu.si Alenka Koželj alenka.kozelj@nlzoh.si Clarissa Brun clarissa.brun@gmail.com Erika Batagelj erika.batagelj@nlzoh.si Aleš Hladnik ales.hladnik@ntf.uni-lj.si Ladislav Holko Ladislav.Holko@savba.sk <p>Chemical and bacterial gradients under different hydrologi­cal conditions were studied in a well-developed underground karst system. Water samples were collected from the main un­derground drainage conduit of the Pivka River from October 2013 until June 2016. The system responds quickly to external pulses (precipitation events), and is also impacted by human interventions, as is demonstrated mainly by fluctuations of sul­phates, chlorides, and occasionally elevated concentrations of organic and faecal pollutants. Chemical and bacterial param­eters showed a monotonous trend of decreasing concentrations from the ponor towards the interior of the karst massif during stable hydrological conditions, and a significant change dur­ing high water conditions. High flow events tend to equilibrate chemical and bacterial parameters in the underground river. Concentrations of chlorides, TOC (total organic carbon) and nitrates were the most indicative parameters describing the for­mation of the gradient. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water indicated that the main karst conduit collects isotopi­cally different waters from the aquifer. The river water collected after nine kilometres of underground flow was always isotopically lighter than the waters collected from the upstream sites. Multiparameter analysis proved to be a useful tool for providing a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of the underground water, which influence both the underground environment and the ecology of the biome.</p><p><strong>Key words:</strong> karst, hydrology, water chemistry, nutrients, stable isotopes, PCA, bacteria.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Multiparametrska analiza okoljskih gradientov, povezanih s hidrološkimi razmerami v binarnem kraškem sistemu (podzemni tok reke Pivke, Slovenija)</strong></p><p>V dobro razvitem podzemnem kraškem sistemu smo pri različnih hidroloških pogojih preučevali kemijske in bakterijske gradiente. Vzorce vode smo odvzeli iz glavnega podzemnega toka reke Pivke med oktobrom 2013 in junijem 2016. Sistem se hitro odziva na zunanje impulze (padavinski dogodki) in je tudi podvržen človekovim posegom, kar dokazujejo predvsem nihanja v koncentraciji sulfatov in kloridov ter občasno povišane koncentracije organskih in fekalnih onesnaževal. Spremljanje kemijskih in bakterijskih parametrov v stabilnih hidroloških razmerah je pokazalo monotoni trend zniževanja koncentracij od ponora proti notranjosti kraškega masiva. Razmere se izrazito spremenijo v času visokih vod, ko pride v podzemnem vodotoku do izenačenja tako kemijskih kot bakterijskih parametrov. Kloridi, TOC (skupni organski ogljik) in nitrati so bili najbolj indikativni parametri za opis nastanka gradienta. Stabilni izotopi vodika in kisika v vodi so pokazali, da vodotok glavnega kraškega kanala zbira izotopsko različne vode iz vodonosnika. Voda podzemne reke po devetih kilometrih toka v podzemlju je bila vedno izotopsko lažja kot vode iz gorvodno vzorčevanih mest. Multiparametrska analiza se je izkazala kot uporabno orodje za celovitejše razumevanje dinamike podzemnih voda, ki vpliva tako na podzemno okolje kot ekologijo bioma.</p><p><strong>Ključne besede:</strong> kras, hidrologija, kemija vode, hranila, stabilni izotopi, PCA, bakterije.</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7710 Kinetic fractionation of the isotope composition of 18O, 13C, and of clumped isotope 18O13C in calcite deposited to speleothems. Implications to the reliability of the 18O and Δ47 paleothermometers 2019-12-20T11:23:43+01:00 Wolfgang Dreybrodt dreybrodt@t-online.de <p>Kinetic fractionation of 18O and clumped isotopes 13C18O in calcite precipitated to speleothems in cave environments renders the paleo-climatic interpretation of these proxies difficult. Therefore a better understanding of the processes generating the isotope imprint is needed. A heuristic approach is taken to interpret recent data of the fractionations in a cave analogue experiment of calcite precipitation (Hansen et al. 2019) that shows a dependence on experimental precipitation rates, F. An expression, , is derived that is based on uni-directional irreversible precipitation and is valid for large F when the forward rate of precipitation dominates the backward rate of dissolution. In that derivation it is assumed that the kinetic constants of precipitation rates are different for the different isotopologues and that this is also true for their equilibrium concentrations ceq with respect to calcite. The constant, ε, is expressed by the kinetic fractionation where α denote the rate constants of precipitation for the rare and abundant isotopologues. The second constant, λ, is determined by the differing equilibrium concentrations of HCO3- isotopologues with respect to calcite and the pCO2 in the surrounding atmosphere. Fitting this expression to the experimental data one obtains the parameters ε and λ for different temperatures. Regarding these results the temporal evolution of 18δCaCO3 (t) and Δ47(t) is discussed for the experimental conditions and for cave environments. This has implications to the application of 1000lnα18 CaCO3-H2O as a paleo-thermometer. It shows the reason why so many differing calibrations have been reported. These results analogously can be applied also to clumped isotopes 13C18O and the calibration of the Δ47-thermometer with regard to speleothem calcite. In summary, a better understanding of the problems arising in the search for generally valid calibrations of 18O and Δ47 paleothermometers is presented.</p><p><strong>Key words</strong>: Calcium carbonate, 13C and 18O isotopes, clumped isotopes, kinetic fractionation between HCO3- and calcite, Δ47 paleothermometer.</p><p><strong>Kinetična frakcionacija izotopov 18O, 13C in izotopskega skupka 18O13C v sigah in zanesljivost paleotermometrov 18O in Δ47</strong></p><p>Kinetična frakcionacija 18O in skupka 13C18O v kalcitu, ki se kot siga odlaga v jamskih okoljih, dela težave pri interpretaciji paleoklime na osnovi teh proksijev. Zato potrebujemo boljše razumevanje procesov, od katerih je odvisen izotopski zapis v sigah. V tem delu s hevrističnim pristopom interpretiramo nedavno pridobljene podatke frakcionacij . Podatki, pridobljeni ob izločanju kalcita v pogojih, podobnih jamskim, kažejo, da na frakcionacijo bistveno vpliva hitrost izločanja kalcita (Hansen et al. 2019). V pogojih, ko je izločanje bistveno hitrejše od raztapljanja, velja zveza . Pri izpeljavi te enačbe upoštevamo, da so kinetične konstante izločanja in ravnotežna konstanta kalcita različne za različne izotopologe. Konstanto ε lahko izrazimo s kinetično frakcionacijo , kjer je α konstanta izločanja za redke oziroma večinske izotopologe. Drugo konstanto λ dobimo iz razlik ravnotežnih koncentracij izotopologov HCO3- glede na kalcit in na atmosferski pCO2 . S prilagajanjem izraza eksperimentalnim podatkom dobimo ε in λ pri različnih temperaturah. To omogoča obravnavo časovne odvisnosti 18δCaCO3 (t) in Δ47(t) pri eksperimentalnih pogojih in v jamskem okolju. Rezultati so pomembni za razumevanje uporabnosti paleotermometra 1000lnα18CaCO3-H2O in hkrati pokažejo na vzrok različnih kalibracij, kot jih zasledimo v literaturi. Rezultate lahko uporabimo tudi za izotopske skupke 13C18O in kalibracijo Δ47- za kalcitno sigo. Članek predstavi nov pogled na iskanje splošno veljavne kalibracije paleotermometrov 18O in Δ47.</p><p><strong>Ključne besede:</strong> kalcit, izotopa 13C in 18O, izotopski skupki, kinetična frakcionacij a med HCO3- in kalcitom, paleotermometer Δ47.</p><p> </p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7273 Evaluation of the private participation in the implementation and management of ecotourism in cavernas do Peruaçu national park, Brazil 2019-12-20T11:22:47+01:00 Hugo Rodrigues de Araujo hugo.araujo@campus.ul.pt Heros Augusto Santos Lobo heroslobo@hotmail.com Luiz Eduardo Panisset Travassos luizepanisset@gmail.com <p>In the last two decades, Brazil has advanced in the creation of Natural Protected Areas (NPAs), reaching more than 17% of its territory. However, the budget allocated for the effectiveness of NPAs is still insufficient, creating gaps that hinder these areas from fulfilling their purposes. The Cavernas do Peruaçu National Park (PNCP) was created in 1999. Its ecotourism infrastructure was conceived and built from 2011 to 2015 and opened to the public in 2017. The implementation of the PNCP differs from other NPAs under the responsibility of the federal government management in Brazil, since it involves private resources from companies with legal obligations to environmental compensation. In this context, a study on the PNCP was carried out, with primary and secondary data analysed. The research aimed at report the process of the PNCP implementation as well as presenting the current state of management and prospects for this Park. With the results obtained, it was possible to conclude that the experience of a partnership between the public power and the private initiative is a practical possibility for the implementation and management of ecotourism, expanding its socioeconomic sustainability and contributing to the goals of nature conservation.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Key words:</strong> national parks, ecotourism, natural heritage, archaeological sites.</p><p><strong>Prispevek zasebnikov pri vzpostavitvi in upravljanju ekoturizma v jamah narodnega parka Cavernas do Šeruaçu, Brazilija</strong></p><p><strong></strong>Brazilija je v zadnjih dveh desetletjih razvijala program zaščitenih naravnih območij, ki danes zavzemajo 17 % površine države. Vendar namenska proračunska sredstva namenjena zaščitenim območjem, ne zadoščajo za učinkovito upravljanje in izvajanje zaščite. Narodni park Cavernas do Peruaçu (NPCP) je bil ustanovljen leta 1995. Infrastruktura, zasnovana na ekološkem pristopu, je bila zgrajena med leti 2011 in 2015 in leta 2017 odprta za javnost. NPCP je izjema med zaščitenimi območji v upravljanju brazilske vlade, saj prejema tudi sredstva zasebnih podjetij, ki so zakonsko obvezana dajatev okoljskega nadomestila. V raziskavi poročamo o razvoju, upravljanju in perspektivah parka. Pokažemo, da je javno zasebno partnerstvo mogoče in da lahko bistveno izboljša možnosti učinkovitega upravljanja, utrjuje socialno-ekonomsko vzdržnost območja in prispeva k boljšemu varovanju narave.<br /><strong></strong></p><p><strong>Ključne besede:</strong> narodni parki, ekoturizem, naravna dediščina, arheološka najdišča.</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/7713 17th International Symposium on Microbial Ecology - ISME 17 2019-12-20T11:33:28+01:00 Janez Mulec janez.mulec@zrc-sazu.si <p> ISME meetings have been organ­ized regularly since 1977, and in 1986 the 4th ISME was hosted by Ljubljana. The 17th ISME was in Leipzig, Germa­ny, where 2250 delegates from 60 countries met. Dur­ing the symposium eight plenary lectures, 26 different sections and three days of poster presentations were or­ganized. A participant could choose one of six or seven simultaneously running sections daily which covered an extremely wide set of microbial ecology from evo­lution, modeling of microbial interactions, review on new and existing metabolic pathways, (meta)genomics, interactions between microbes and hosts, biogeochemi­cal cycles, bioinformatics, new methods and innovative bioremediation procedures. It became clearly evident that microbial ecology can offer some answers to many urgent global issues. Some interesting highlights from the symposium are given below.</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c)