Acta Carsologica https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica <p><em>Acta Carsologica</em> publishes orginial research papers and reviews, letters, essays and reports covering topics related to specific of karst areas. These comprise, but are not limited to karst geology, hydrology and geomorphology, speleology, hydrogeology, biospeleology and history of karst science. <em>Acta Carsologica</em> was established in 1955, now it is co-published by the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts and ZRC SAZU Karst Research Institute.</p> <p>Print ISSN: 0583-6050<br />Online ISSN: 1580-2612</p> en-US <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.</span></p> <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">More in: <a href="https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/prispevki">Submission chapter</a></span></p> gabrovsek@zrc-sazu.si (Franci Gabrovšek) gabrovsek@zrc-sazu.si (Franci Gabrovšek) Thu, 08 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 3.3.0.10 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 GIS-based analysis of doline density on Miljevci karst plateau (Croatia) https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10465 <p>The doline density and their spatial distribution analysis is one of the methods used for karst relief morphostructural analysis. We present the results of morphometric features, doline spatial distribution and their relationship on Miljevci karst plateau based on digital elevation model (DEM). Altogether, 286 dolines were mapped in the study area. The doline density analysis has been applied. The results show that the doline spatial distribution is clustered. Two larger areas with densities of 30 and 34 dolines/km2 are determined. Their distribution along the river canyons could indicate the existence of a palaeodrainage network. The strongest link between the doline density and topography is with inclination and vertical relief dissection, whereas the number of dolines decreases with an increase of slope inclination and relative relief. Such distribution confirms the suitability of karstic plateaus without active drainage for doline formation.</p> Nina Lončar, Ivana Grcić Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10465 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200 A semi-automatic approach for doline mapping in Brazilian covered karst: the way forward to vulnerability assessment https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10011 <p>Doline mapping is paramount in the vulnerability and risk assessment of the underground karst environment by identifying cave-ground connectivity points at the surface. However, manual mapping is labour-intensive, slow and subjective, especially on a large scale. Therefore, the present study adopted a GIS-based semi-automatic approach for mapping large and medium-sized depressions/dolines in the Corrente river basin in Brazil, with a particular focus on the environmentally preserved areas of river Vermelho (APANRV Portuguese abbreviation) using remote sensing (DEM and Google Earth imagery) and field-based observations. Seven typical dolines forms (e.g., cockpit with drain insertion, collapse, collapse with river capture, suffosion, solution, cover collapse, and buried) are found from extensive field surveys. As an outcome of the proposed approach, two hundred and thirty-two medium to large-sized dolines have been identified and categorised into three main groups based on the cave density and local geology G1, G2, and G3. The high density of identified dolines (164 known caves) in G1 provides reconnaissance for future speleological works in the preserved areas. Additionally, the presence of a considerable number of dolines in the adjoining areas (G2 and G3) stresses the need to revise the existing boundaries of the APANRV. Results correlate well with the dolines sites marked using field surveys and Google Earth images. This doline mapping may help researchers in the groundwater vulnerability assessment and the protection of speleological heritage preserved in the caves.</p> Cristiano Fernandes Ferreira, Yawar Hussain, Rogério Uagoda Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10011 Thu, 08 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Caves, sinkholes, and fractures in the eogenetic karst of Florida, a GIS-based spatial analysis https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10454 <p>The correlation between surface and subsurface karst development was explored by comparing the directionality and spatial distribution of karstic depressions around twenty-two select caves in the eogenetic karst of Florida. Orientations of cave passages and major axes of depressions around cave centrelines imply varying degrees of correlation between them. Spatial distribution of karstic depressions was studied by standard deviational ellipses of sinkhole centroids and nearest neighbour orientations around caves using spatial statistics tools of ArcGIS. An overall analysis of the data shows close connections between some caves and the surrounding sinkholes in terms of their orientation and spatial distribution, suggesting the importance of fracture systems in the development of karst.</p> Can Denizman Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10454 Thu, 08 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Clustered stone forest in Pu Dou Chun (Yunnan, China) https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10688 <p>One of the unique examples of the development of subsoil karren into a stone forest on the varied geological bedrock of the Lunan surface is revealed to us. Originally of subsoil formation and later denuded, the rounded hills that dissect the karst surface have transformed into a clustered stone forest whose central part usually consists of a larger dissected rock mass with individual stone pillars and teeth at the edge. The geologic profile contains beds of dense, homogeneous and compact fine-grained limestones that alternate with beds of mostly coarse-grained and just as compact dolomitised limestones. These bed properties are also reflected in the exterior of the rock as a diverse relief. The average calcium carbonate content in both types of rocks combined is 97.3%. The rock is thickly bedded to massive; beds are mainly positioned subhorizontally. The contacts between the beds of limestone and dolomitised limestone are sharp and clearly visible, especially in the bottom part of the geologic profile, whereas in the central part, they are often blurred and one type of rock grades continuously into the other. In the areas containing limestone, individual bedding planes are especially visible. As can be inferred, the slightly more porous dolomitised rock, made up of larger particles, disintegrates faster in a more permanently waterlogged acid subsoil environment, where the moisture penetrates it deeper. However, as it takes longer to dissolve, it protrudes from the surface of the dolomitic limestone rock when exposed to moisture from occasional rain. The composition and fracturing of the diverse rock strata decisively influences the shape of the pillars and their rock relief. Larger subsoil rock forms (channels, notches, half-bells) have developed on all rock strata. The diversity of the rock is also reflected by the notches that have formed under the soil along the more rapidly soluble partly dolomite rock strata. Denuded subsoil-shaped pillars are reshaped by rainwater and trickling water. Smaller rock forms carved by rainwater have formed mostly only on evenly composed, fine- grained limestone rock. The tops on such rock are more distinctly conical and blade-like and wider on more slowly soluble rock.</p> Martin Knez, Hong Liu, Tadej Slabe Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10688 Thu, 08 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Definition and process-based classification of caves https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10611 <p>Cave is re-defined in order to be linked to the cave formation processes, to cover the known cave types, to differentiate from porosity and contiguous spaces, to be applied also in a continuum of size and to avoid explorational bias. Despite the scientific basis, the proposed definition remains simple enough to be used by cavers and non-specialists. Following this definition, a classification scheme that is also process-based combines the known cave types. Clustering is based on five levels of classification, from which the first two levels define the major cave categories. The rest of the branching is the result of variation in settings and formation agents. A discussion on various classifications and definitions reveals the non-static character of such schemes that tend to change in relation to the progress of research cave census and improved communication of scientists on previously and new discovered caves.</p> Georgios Theodoros Lazaridis Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10611 Thu, 08 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Microplastic pollution in vulnerable karst environments: case study from the Slovenian classical karst region https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10597 <p>Since the start of mass production of plastic materials more than a century ago, the problem of accumulating plastic waste in the environment has reached epic proportions. Recently, the problem of smaller plastic particles (microplastic, MP) in the environment has become a widely studied topic, but the amount and types of MP in karst environments are still poorly known. Thus, the objective of this study was to collect and analyse samples from various karst habitats and to try and determine the scope of pollution in karst springs that are in part used as sources for drinking water. Of the potential pollution sources, we sampled rainwater, two discharges from wastewater treatment plants, and a leachate from a landfill. We conducted polymer analyses of potential MP particles using FTIR-ATR. The results showed that eight samples from the Postojna region (Postojna–Planina Cave System, rainfall sample and surface streams) contain up to 444 MP particles per m3. However, 32 samples taken from the Škocjan–Kačna–Jama 1 v Kanjaducah Cave System contain up to 60,000 MP particles per m3, with the bulk of particles found in the sediment samples from Škocjan Caves – Kačna Cave System. Samples from Postojna region contained mostly PET, PU and PA polymers, with a minor inclusion of polymers of plastic sponge used for cleaning. Samples from Škocjan region contained mostly PP, PET and PE polymers, with some of PA and PU polymers. Sediment samples contained much less MP particles compared to water samples, which indicates fast transport through karst aquifer.</p> Lara Valentić, Peter Kozel, Tanja Pipan Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10597 Tue, 13 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100 Attitudes and perceptions of local residents and tourists – a comparative study of the twin national parks of Aggtelek (Hungary) and Slovak Karst (Slovakia) https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10683 <p>National parks (NPs) are the flagships of protected areas, which primarily serve the protection of nature, but are also important sites for tourism. While karst areas are generally disadvantageous in terms of traditional farming, tourism can provide new livelihoods for those who live there. Therefore, it does matter how the local people relate to the NP and tourism, and the opinion of tourists is also an important factor. In this article, we present the results of a questionnaire survey conducted in the Aggtelek National Park (ANP) and the Slovak Karst National Park (SKNP). Our results show that for locals, the forest is the most important natural resource often visited by them, while for tourists, caves are the first choice. Conflicts between locals and tourists are negligible, and all actors agree to further increase tourism. In both ANP and SKNP, the majority of tourists and locals alike have a rather positive view of the NP. However, there is still a significant group of local residents who have a negative opinion about the NP. One reason for this may be that the locals feel they have only a marginal influence on NP decisions. The ANP plays a more important role in the lives of locals than in SKNP, because ANP has a larger organisational background and more human resources for a smaller population. Although geotourism is still largely missing from the vocabulary of local residents and park management alike, there is a small but significant part of visitors who consider themselves sensu lato geotourists. As for the motivation of tourists, the keyword is “cave”, while the content of the term “karst” is much less known for visitors (especially on the Hungarian side). In Hungary, the tourism to Baradla Cave is largely due to school education. We found that the internet, although one of the most important sources of information for visitors, was not the first port of call, and was not outstanding compared to other factors.</p> Tamás Telbisz, László Mari, Alena Gessert, Janetta Nestorová Dická, Péter Gruber Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10683 Thu, 08 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0100