Effect of s strong rainstorm on the hydrodynamics of the Puerto Princesa underground river (Palawan, Philippines)

Chiara Calligaris, José Maria Calaforra, Franco Cucchi, Paolo Forti, Luca Zini

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/ac.v47i1.5000

Abstract

Fascinating and fragile environments as are the underground estuaries, need to be studied, understood and protected for present and future generations. Even if wide and abundant bibliography related to tides and their behaviour with respect to the external estuaries is available, none dealed with the estuary caves and the related hydrogeology. This paper aims to partially fill this gap presenting a preliminary study done at the Puerto Princesa Underground River (PPUR), in the Palawan Island (Philippines). The data was collected during the last expedition (November 2016) organised by La Venta, in which some of the authors took part. During the survey, the cave has been instrumented with in continuous diver data-logger devices (CTD) recording temperature (T), electrical conductivity (EC) and water level fluctuations. Longitudinal and vertical water hydrogeological profiles of the cave were realised with the aim of understanding the dynamics of the waters during different hydrogeological regimes in combination with salt water intrusion. In addition, a bathymetric profile was done to better identify the point where to realise the vertical logs. A significant rainstorm occurred during the expedition, lasting for approximately 12 hours resulting in 80 mm of rain, and its effects gave the researchers the opportunity to analyse the hydrodynamics of the flowing waters during a flood. In normal flow conditions, the longitudinal logs highlighted the presence of freshwater inlets and the vertical logs testified to a clear stratification of the waters (freshwaters at the surface and brackish waters at the bottom). During floods, the EC and T data showed evidence of a fast substitution of the resident waters.

Key words: anchialine caves, sea water intrusion, hydrodynamics, karst springs, PPUR, Philippines.

Učinek močnega naliva na hidrodinamiko podzemske reke Puerto princese (Palawan, Filipini)


Očarljivo in občutljivo okolje, kot so podzemni estuariji, je treba preučevati, razumeti in zaščititi za sedanje in prihodnje generacije. Četudi imamo na voljo široko in bogato bibliografijo o plimovanju in delovanju plimovanja v zunanjih estuarijih, nobeno delo ne obravnava estuarskih jam in s tem povezane hidrogeologije. Namen tega članka je delno zapolniti to vrzel in predstaviti predhodno študijo na podzemni reki Puerto Princesa (PPUR) na otoku Palawan (Filipini). Podatki so bili zbrani med zadnjo ekspedicijo (novembra 2016), ki jo je organizirala La Venta, v kateri so sodelovali tudi nekateri avtorji. V raziskavi je bila jama opremljena z zveznimi merilci (CTD) temperature (T), električne prevodnosti (EC) in nihanja nivojev vode. Vzdolžni in navpični hidrogeološki vodni profili jame so bili izmerjeni, da bi razumeli dinamiko voda med različnimi hidrogeološkimi nivoji in med vdori morske vode. Poleg tega je bil opravljen tudi batimetrični profil, da bi lažje določili, kje izvesti navpične meritve. Med ekspedicijo se je zgodil močan naliv, ki je trajal približno 12 ur, padlo je 80 mm dežja, njegov učinek pa je raziskovalcem omogočil analizo hidrodinamike tekočih voda med poplavo. V običajnih vodostajih so vzdolžne meritve pokazale na dotoke sveže vode, vertikalne meritve pa so pokazale  jasno stratifikacijo lastnosti vode (sveža voda na površini in brakična voda na dnu). Med poplavami so podatki EC in T potrdili hitro zamenjavo vode.

Ključne besede: anhialine jame, vdor morske vode, hidrodinamika, kraški izviri, PPUR, Filipini.

 

 

Keywords

anchialine caves; sea water intrusion; hydrodynamics; karst springs; PPUR; Philippines

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/ac.v47i1.5000

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