Popovo polje, a different wiew

Borut Juvanec

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3986/ac.v45i3.4796

Abstract

Popovo polje is a longitudinal karst basin at the level of 250 metres above sea level, surrounded by higher hills, not far from the Adriatic Sea. Water power can be used for powering certain water devices, such as mills, mill-stamps, saw-mills, irrigation etc. All these devices except sawmills can be found in this region. The typical architecture on Popovo polje is closely connected with stone: dwellings, economic buildings, especially salaš (drying and storing device for corn), irrigation devices on the Trebišnjica river but the most attractive are mills, especially ponor mills. A ponor mill is a unique system in the world, using the oscillating level of water. A classical millwheel with a vertical axle – almost a turbine – is set into a vertical cylinder, which uses water power, independent of its level. The architectural frame is made of stone but the rotating elements are wooden, in particular the rotating waterwheel with scoops. Mills located on karst ponors with special behaviour are called ‘estavelle’ mills, with the wheel rotating in both directions. The problem with these jewels of the cultural and technical heritage is that they are abandoned and forgotten. The most important aspects of saving them are uncovering them, recalling them to memory and preventing them from disappearing, restoring them to working order and presenting them to the public. The conclusions are very clear: not even owners are aware of these important objects. We professionals must restore this heritage to life, to the public, by raising the awareness of the local people of the work and culture, with beneficial economic effects.
Key words: karst, ponor (swallow hole), watermill, waterwheel, turbine.

Borut Juvanec: Popovo polje, drugačen pogled
Popovo polje je tipična vzdolžna kraška kotlina na višini 250 metrov nad morjem, nedaleč od Jadranskega morja, obkrožena z višjim hribovjem. Moč vode lahko uporabimo kot energijo za pogon nekaterih vodnih strojev: mlinov, stop, valjalnic, žag, namakalnih sistemov, itn. Na tem območju najdemo vse naštete, razen žag, kar je na kraškem terenu povsem logično. Arhitekturne značilnosti so vezane na kamen. Objekti so predvsem bivalne hiše, gospodarski objekti, posebej salaš kot sušilna naprava za koruzo, namakalni sistemi na reki Trebišnjica, predvsem pa so to 'ponor mlinice', mlini na ponorih. Ponor mlinica je edinstvena v svetovnem merilu, uporablja nihajočo višino vode. Je mlin z vertikalno osjo vodnega kolesa – skoraj turbine. Sam mlin je nameščen v vertikalnem okroglem obodu. Konstrukcija mlina je seveda kamnita, razen notranje konstrukcije z lesenim kolesom, ki ima enake lesene žličke. Nekateri mlini, ki stojijo na estavelah (ponorih, ki požirajo, a tudi bruhajo vodo), imajo konstrukcijo, prirejeno za delovanje v obeh smereh. Največji problemi teh mlinov je, da padajo v pozabo in da fizično propadajo. Najpomembnejša naloge so zato iztrganje pozabi in izginotju, rekonstrukcija v stanje delovanja in predstavitev spomenikov ljudske kulture javnosti. Sklep je zato povsem jasen: ta kulturna dediščina je danes pozabljena in je niti njeni lastniki ne poznajo več. Zato moramo predvsem strokovnjaki to pomembno kulturno dobrino vrniti v življenje, da bo dvigala zavest lokalnega prebivalstva, na področju kulture, a z ekonomskimi učinki.
Ključne besede: kras, ponor (požiralnik, bruhalnik), vodni mlin, mlinsko kolo, turbina.

 

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3986/ac.v45i3.4796

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