Dolines and Sinkholes: Aspects of Evolution and Problems of Classification

Ugo Sauro

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/ac.v32i2.335

Abstract

»Doline«, mednarodni izraz za vrtačo, je najbolj razširjena površinska oblika na krasu. Ime izhaja iz slovanske besede »dolina«, ki pomeni depresijo v topografskem površju. V skoraj 100 letih se je izraz razširil in danes ima v mednarodni literaturi dobro določen pomen. Zaradi tega ga ni mogoče zamenjati s kakim drugim izrazom, npr. »vrtača« ali "kraška dolina" kot predlagajo nekateri avtorji (Gams 1973, 1974). Uporaba izraza »sinkhole« kot sinonima za »doline« v ameriški literaturi vodi včasih do podvajanj, saj se izraz »sinkhole« uporablja predvsem za udorno ali pokrito vrtačo. Na podlagi podrobnega preučevanja vrtač na različnih kraških ozemljih je mogoče trditi, da je vrtača lahko tako po strukturi kot po nastanku, kompleksna oblika (Sauro in print, a in b). Vrtačo lahko najpravilneje opredelimo tako, da dodamo pridevnik, ki pojasnjuje posebnosti. Najpomembnejši pridevniki so tisti, ki so vezani tako na morfogenetske mehanizme kot na hidrološke posebnosti. Na podlagi teh pridevnikov je mogoče razlikovati več kategorij in tipov vrtač. Za razumevanje vrtače je najbolj pomembna rekonstrukcija njenega razvoja, pa četudi je ta kompleksen.


The doline is the most representative landform of the karst surface. The name derives from the word dolina, a Slav term indicating any depression in the topographical surface. For nearly a century, this name acquired widespread use and a well defined meaning in the international literature; as a result it is not possible to substitute it with another term such as “vrtača” or “kraška dolina”, for example, as proposed by some authors (Gams, 1973, 1974). The use of sinkhole as a synonym for doline in the American literature has also created some ambiguity, because sinkhole is mostly applied in the sense of collapse doline or of cover doline. From the detailed studies of the dolines of different karst areas, it is possible to infer that the structure and the genesis of this form may be complex (Sauro, in press – a – and - b). The most correct way to define a doline is to add an adjective indicating a peculiar attribute. The most significant attributes are those linked to both the morphogenetical mechanism and the hydrological structure. On the basis of these attributes it is possible to distinguish several categories and types of dolines. Most importantly to understand a doline it is necessary to be able to reconstruct its history even if that may be complex, as some dolines formed by specific processes may later further evolve through different processes.

Full Text:

PDF

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/ac.v32i2.335

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Acta Carsologica

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.