Karst and Cave Systems in Bosnek Region (Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) and Wintimdouine (High Atlas Mountain, Morocco)

Dora Angelova, M'hamed Alaeddine Beloul, Sophia Bouzid, Farid Faik

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/ac.v34i1.281

Abstract

 

The study of both endokarstic systems Bosnek (Vitosha Mountain, Bulgaria) and Wintimdouine (High Atlas Mountain, Morocco) is presented in this work. Both regions are standard for the study of geodynamic processes in Bulgaria and Morocco, and they could be used as geodynamic polygons in the Mediterranean region. The karst is developed in Triassic and Jurassic limestones. The karst processes in both endokarstic systems occur under the conditions of active Quaternary and recent tectonics. A typical structural karst is formed. The present work shows also the results of the comprehensive studies performed in the field of geology, tectonics, geomorpholody, hydrology, climatology, etc., of the karst. It is accented on the genesis and the evolution of the greatest cave systems in Bulgaria (Duhlata cave – more than 17 km) and Morocco (Wintimdouine cave – more than 19 km long). Both cave systems are situated in zones with high seismicity, with open surface and sud-surfase paleoseismic disruptions. The karst study and monitoring of its processes has great practical value in Bulgaria and Morocco because they are related to one of the largest urbanized territories ( Pernik and Sofia for Bulgaria, and Agadir for Morocco) and they are protected natural objectives as well.

 

V prispevku so predstavljene raziskave jamskih sistemov Bosnek (Vitoša, Bolgarija) in Wintimdouine (Visoki Atlas, Maroko). To sta standardni območji za preučevanje geodinamičnih procesov v Bolgariji in Maroku in bi lahko služili kot geodinamični poligon za celotno Sredozemlje. Tamkajšnji kras je razvit v triasnih in jurskih apnencih. V obeh jamskih sistemih potekajo kraški procesi pod vplivom aktivne kvartarne in recentne tektonike. Izoblikovan je značilni strukturni kras. V članku so predstavljeni tudi izsledki podrobnih preučevanj krasa na področju geologije, tektonike, geomorfologije, hidrologije, klimatologije, itd. Osredotočen je na največja jamska sistema v Bolgariji (preko 17 km dolga jama Duhlata) in Maroku (preko 19 km dolga jama Wintimdouine). Oba sistema sta v območju močne seizmičnosti z odprtimi površinskimi in podpovršinskimi paleoseizmičnimi razpokami. Preučevanje in redno opazovanje krasa in kraških procesov je za Bolgarijo in Maroko velikega praktičnega pomena, saj so vezana tako na največja urabnizirana ozemlja (Pernik in Sofija v Bolgariji, Agadir v Maroku), kot so to tudi zavarovani naravni pojavi.

 

 

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/ac.v34i1.281

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