Cave and Karst Evolution in the Alps and Their Relation to Paleoclimate and Paleotopography

  • Philippe Audra Équipe Gestion et valorisation de l’environnement, UMR 6012 “ESPACE” CNRS, University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 98 boulevard Édouard Herriot, BP 209, 06204 Nice cedex
  • Alfredo Bini Dipartimento di Scienze della terra, Università di Milano, via Mangiagalli 34, 20133 Milano
  • Franci Gabrovšek Karst research Institute ZRC SAZU, Titov trg 2, 66230 Postojna
  • Philipp Häuselmann Institut suisse de spéléologie et de karstologie (ISSKA), CP 818, 2301 La Chaux-de-Fonds
  • Fabien Hobléa EDYTEM, Université de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget cédex
  • Pierre-Yves Jeannin Institut suisse de spéléologie et de karstologie (ISSKA), CP 818, 2301 La Chaux-de-Fonds
  • Jurij Kunaver Hubadova ulica 16, 61000 Ljubljana
  • Michel Monbaron Département de géosciences/géographie, ch. du Musée 4, Université de Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg
  • France Šušteršič Dept. of Geology NTF, University of Ljubljana, 1001 Ljubljana
  • Paola Tognini via Santuario inferiore, 33/D, 23890 Barzago (LC)
  • Hubert Trimmel Draschestrasse 77, 1230 Wien
  • Andres Wildberger Dr. von Moos AG, Engineering Geology, 8037 Zürich


Progress in the understanding of cave genesis processes, as well as the intensive research carried out in the Alps during the last decades, permit to summarize the latest knowledge about Alpine caves. The phreatic parts of cave systems develop close to the karst water table, which depends on the spring position, which in turn is generally related to the valley bottom. Thus, caves are directly linked with the geomorphic evolution of the surface and reflect valley deepening. The sediments deposited in the caves help to reconstruct the morphologic succession and the paleoclimatic evolution. Moreover, they are the only means to date the caves and thus the landscape evolution. Caves appear as soon as there is an emersion of limestone from the sea and a water table gradient. Mesozoic and early tertiary paleokarsts within the alpine range prove of these ancient emersions. Hydrothermal karst seems to be more widespread than previously presumed. This is mostly due to the fact that usually, hydrothermal caves are later reused (and reshaped) by meteoric waters. Rock-ghost weathering is described as a new cave genesis agent. On the contrary, glaciers hinder cave genesis processes and fill caves. They mainly influence cave genesis indirectly by valley deepening and abrasion of the caprock. All present datings suggest that many alpine caves (excluding paleokarst) are of Pliocene or even Miocene age. Progress in dating methods (mainly the recent evolution with cosmogenic nuclides) should permit, in the near future, to date not only Pleistocene, but also Pliocene cave sediments absolutely.


Download data is not yet available.
How to Cite
Audra P, Bini A, Gabrovšek F, Häuselmann P, Hobléa F, JeanninP-Y, Kunaver J, Monbaron M, Šušteršič F, Tognini P, Trimmel H, Wildberger A. Cave and Karst Evolution in the Alps and Their Relation to Paleoclimate and Paleotopography. AC [Internet]. 2007Apr.1 [cited 2020Jul.5];36(1). Available from:
Original papers