Geodiversity of surface karst features of geographical zones

  • Veress Márton
  • Szilárd Vetési-Foith University of Pécs
Keywords: zonal karst type, high mountain karst, small karst feature, medium karst feature, large karst feature, diversity

Abstract

 The diversity of small, medium, and large solution features of zonal karsts and high mountain karsts is described here. It was taken into consideration how diversity changes according to the distance from the Equator in case of small, medium and large features of various zonal karsts and how it varies based on the distance from altitude in case of the karren features (small features) of high mountain karsts. It can be established that the diversity of karst features decreases according to the distance from the Equator (independent of the size of the features), while in high mountains the diversity of karren features first increases with altitude and then it decreases. The decrease of the diversity of medium and large features moving away from the Equator can be explained by the decrease of dissolution in­tensity. The diversity change of karren features shows a rela­tion with the diversity of the inclination of the bearing slope. Since on tropical karsts and in the medium elevated areas of high mountains (1600-2100 m) where bare slopes with large expansion and various slope inclination occur, the diversity of karren is great. On tropical karsts, slopes with diverse inclina­tion were created by karstification and in high mountains by glacial erosion.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Andrejchouk V., Blachowicz T., Dluzewski 2019. Fractal analysis of tropical karst relief – South China Karst case study – Geological Quarterly 63(4) pp. 729-740.
Balázs D. 1986. Kína karsztvidékei (Karst regions of China) – Karszt és Barlang II. pp. 87-92. (in Hungarian)
Balázs D. 1990. A dél-kínai karsztvidék főbb barlangtípusai (Main cave types of the South-China karst region) – Karszt és Barlang I pp. 53-60. (in Hungarian)
BC Ministry of Forestry 2003. Karst Inventory Standards and Vulnerability Assessment Procedures for British Columbia. – Version 2.0. Resources Information Standards Committee, Victoria, BC. 123 p. https://www2.gov.bc.ca/gov/content/environment/natural-resource-stewardship/laws-policies-standards-guidance/inventory-standards (20 March 2021)
Bögli A. 1960. Kalklösung und Karrenbildung. Zeitsch. f. Geomorph. N. E. (2) pp. 4-21.
Bögli A. 1961. Karrentische, ein Beitrug zur Karstmorphologie. Zeits. f. Geomorphologie 5 pp. 185-193.
Bögli A. 1976. Die wichtigsten Karrenformen der Kalkalpen. Karst processes and relevant landforms. International Speleological Union, Commission on Karst denudation. Department of Geography, Philosophical Faculty, University of Ljubljana. Ljubljana, pp. 141-149.
Cvijič J 1918. Hydrographie souterraine et evolution morphologique du karst. Revue de Geographie Alpine 6(4) pp. 375-426.
Cvijič J 1925. Types morphologiques des terrains calcaires. C.R. Acad. Sci., Paris
Day M. ,Waltham T. 2009. The pinnacle karrenfields of Mulu. – In: Ginés A, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds), Karst Rock Features. Karren Sculpturing Zalozba ZRC. Institut za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU, Postojna. Carsologica 9: pp. 423-432.
Djurovic´ P, Petrovic´ AS, Simic´ S (2010) The overall impact of Pleistocene glaciation on morphological diversity of uvalas at Durmitor and Zˇijovo. Serbian Geographical Society, 90:17–34. doi:10.2298/GSGD1001017D.
Ford DC (1979) A review of alpine karst in the Southern Rocky Mountains of Canada. Bulletin of the National Speleological Society, 41:53-65.
Ford D.C., Williams P.W. 2007. Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chichester, 562 p.
Gams I. 1978. The polje: The problem of definition. Zeits. für Geomorphology 22 pp. 170-181.
Ginés A. 2004. Karren. In: Gunn J. (editor) Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science, Fitzroy Dearborn, New York, London, pp. 470-473.
Ginés Á. 2009. Karrenfield landscapes and karren landforms. In: Ginés Á, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds), Karst rock features. Karren sculpturing. Zalozba ZRC. Institut za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU, Postojna-Ljubljana, Carsologica 9, pp. 13–24
Gray, M. 2005. Geodiversity and Geoconservation: What? Why, and How?. Geodiversity and Geoconservation (Eds.: SANTUCCI, L.V.) pp.4-12.
Grimes K.G. 2012. Surface Karst Features of the Judbarra/Gregory National Park, Northern Territory, Australia. Helectite 41 pp. 15–36
Grund A. 1914. Die geographische Zyklus im karst. Gesellschaft für Erdkunde, 52 pp. 621-640
Gvozdetskiy NA 1965. Types of Karst in the U.S.S.R. Separatum, Prob. Speleol. Res. (Prague) pp. 47-54.
Jakucs L. 1977. Morphogenetics of Karst Regions. Adam Hilgar, Bristol, 284 p.
Kevei Bárány, I. 2007. Geodiverzitás a karsztokon (Geodiversity on karsts). Karsztfejlődés XII. pp. 215-223. (in Hungarian)
Kiernan, K. 1997. Landform classification for geoconservation – In: Eberhard, R., (eds), Pattern and Process: Towards a Regional Approach to National Estate Assessment of Geodiversity, 1997 Technical Series No. 2, Australian Heritage Commission & Environment Forest Taskforce, Environment Australia, Canberra, pp. 21-34.
Knez M., Slabe T. 2009. Lithological characteristics shape, and rock relief of the Lunan stone forests. – In: Ginés A, Knez M, Slabe T., Dreybroot W. (eds.), Karst Rock Features, Karren Sculpturing Zalozba ZRC. Institut za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU, Postojna Carsologica 9 pp. 439-452.
Komatina M. 1982 A fejlődés feltételei és a karsztos területek felosztása (Conditions of evolution and classification of karst areas) In: A. Burger, L. Dubertret (szerk.): Karsztterületek hidrogeológiája, MKBT, Budapest pp. 23-35. (in Hungarian)

Mikhailenko A.V., Ruban D.A., Ermolaev V.A. 2020. The Khadzhokh Canyon System – An Important Geosite of the Western Caucasus. Geosciences 10.181; doi: 10.3390/geosciences 1005018, www.mdpi.com/journal/geosciences
Sharples, C. 1995. Geoconservation in forest management – principles and procedures; Tasforests, Vol. 7, pp. 37-50, Forestry Tasmania, Hobart
Sweeting M. M. 1973. Karst Landforms, Columbia University Press, New York, 362 p.
Trudgill ST 1985. Limestone geomorphology. Longman, New York, 196p
Veress M. 2004. A karszt (The Karst) – BDF, Természetföldrajzi Tanszék, Szombathely 215 p. (in Hungarian)
Veress M. 2010. Karst Environments, Karren Formation in High Mountains, Springer, Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York 230.
Veress M. 2017. Solution doline development on glaciokarst in alpine and Dinaric areas. Earth Science Reviews 173 pp. 31-48
Veress M. 2019. Karren and karren formation of bare slopes – Earth Science Reviews 188 pp. 279-290.
Veress M 2020. Karst Types and Their Karstification, Journal of Earth Science 31(3) pp. 621-634
Veress M., Tóth G., Zentai Z., Kovács Gy. 2006. A magashegységi karrosodás mértékének és minőségének alakulása a különböző növényövekben (Degree and quality of high mountain karren formation in different vegetation belts) – Karszt és Barlang pp. 39-48 (in Hungarian)
Veress M., Lóczy D., Zentai Z., Tóth G., Schläffer R. 2008. The origin of the Bemaraha tsingy (Madagascar). International Journal of Speleology 37(2) pp. 131-142
Veress, M., Telbisz, T., Tóth, G., et al., 2019. Glaciokarst. Springer Geography, Cham. 516. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-97292-3
Waltham T. 2008. Fencong, fenglin, cone karst and tower karst. Cave and Karst Science 35(3) pp. 77-88.
Waltham A.C., Fookes P.G. 2003. Engineering classification of karst ground conditions. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 36 pp. 101–118.
White WB 1988. Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains. Oxford University Press, New York – Oxford 464 p.
Wilford G.E., Wall J.R.D. 1965. Karst topography in Sarawak. Journal Trop. Geogr. 21 pp. 44-77.
Williams P.W. 1971. Illustrating morphometric analysis of karst with examples from New Guinea. Zeits für Geomorphologie 15(1) pp. 40-61.
Williams P.W. 1972a. Morphometric analysis of polygonal karst in New Guinea. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 83 pp. 761-796.
Williams P.W. 1972b. The analysis of spatial characteristics of karst terrains, in Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology (ed. Chorley RJ), Methuen, London pp. 136-163.
Williams P.W. 1983. The role of the subcutaneous zone in karst hydrology. Journal of Hidrology (Netherlands) 61 pp. 45-67.
William P. W. 1985. Subcutaneous hydrology and the development of doline and cockpit karst. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie 29(4) pp. 463-482
Williams P.W 1987. Geomorphic inheritance and the development of tower karst. Earth Surf. Process Landf. 12:5 pp. 453-465
William P. W. 2004. Dolines – In: Gunn (ed): Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science, Fitzroy Dearborn, New York, London pp. 304-310.
Williams P.W. 2009. Arête and pinnacle karst of Mount Kaijende. – In: Ginés A, Knez M, Slabe T, Dreybrodt W (eds), Karst Rock Features. Karren Sculpturing Zalozba ZRC. Institut za raziskovanje krasa ZRC SAZU, Postojna. Carsologica 9 pp. 433-437.
Zámbó L. 1986. Karsztvörösagyagok CO2 termelés és a karsztkorrózió összefüggése (The connection between the CO2 production of karst red clays and karst corrosion). A Nehézipari Műszaki Egyetem Közleményei I. sorozat Bányászat 33/1-4 pp. 125-138. (in Hungarian)
Published
2021-12-15
How to Cite
1.
Márton V, Vetési-FoithS. Geodiversity of surface karst features of geographical zones. AC [Internet]. 2021Dec.15 [cited 2022Jan.28];50(2-3). Available from: https://ojs.zrc-sazu.si/carsologica/article/view/10082
Section
Original papers