Conservation assessment and action on Lotus sanguineus (Fabaceae), a critically endangered species endemic to Turkey

  • Ümit Subaşi Ege University Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, 35100, İzmir, Turkey
  • Fatoş Şekercıler Ankara University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara Turkey
  • Mecit Vural Gazi University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, Ankara, Turkey
Keywords: Conservation action, IUCN assessment, Lotus sanguineus (Vural) D.D.Sokoloff, Endemic, Turkey


Lotus sanguineus is one of the endemic taxa from Turkey in the Mediterranean Regions. It has hitherto been known from type locality and was assessed under VU and EN categories despite the lack of information population size, location number and habitat quality. This study aims to determine the global conservation status and conservation strategies of the narrow endemic species. We collected all available data and evaluated them with the field studies. We reported the sizes of populations, altitude, coordinates, habitat types and the threats it faces for each locality. GeoCAT analyses at global levels indicate extent of occurrence 19.965 km2 and area of occupancy 9 km2 and there could be an inferred decline due to habitat loss and fragmentation of the original population, suggesting this species might be classified as Critically Endangered, based on criterium B1ab (i, ii, iii) + 2ab (i, ii, iii) in the Red List categorization. Conservation priorities identified include life history and ecology studies, in-situ conservation, population monitoring and ex-situ conservation to prevent the destruction of the existing gene pool.


Download data is not yet available.


Akman, Y., Ketenoğlu, O., Kurt, L. & Vural, M. 2014: İç Anadolu step vejetasyonu [The steppe vegetation of Central Anatolia]. Palme Yayıncılık, Ankara, TR, 351 pp.

Allan, G.J., Francisco-Ortega, J., Santos-Guerra, A., Boerner, E. & Zimmer, E.A. 2004: Molecular phylogenetic evidence for the geographic origin and classification of Canary Island Lotus (Fabaceae: Loteae). Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 32: 123–138.

Allan, G.J., Zimmer, E.A., Wagner, W.L. & Sokoloff, D.D. 2003: Molecular phylogenetic analyses of tribe Loteae (Leguminosae): Implications for classification and biogeography. In: Klitgaard, B.B. & Bruneau, A. (eds.), Advances in legume systematics, vol. 10. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 371–393.

Bachman, S., Moat, J., Hill, A.W., de la Torre, J. & Scott, B. 2011: Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: Geospatial conservation assessment tool. ZooKeys 150: 117-126.

Bernardos, S., Amado, A. & Amich, F. 2006: The narrow endemic Scrophularia valdesii Ortega-Olivencia & Devesa (Scrophulariaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula: an evaluation of its conservation status. Biodivers. Conserv. 15:4027-4043.

Bouza, N., Caujapé-Castells, J., González-Pérez, M.A., Batista, F. & Sosa, PA. 2002: Population structure and genetic diversity of two endangered endemic species of the Canarian Laurel Forest: Dorycnium spectabile (Fabaceae) and Isoplexis chalcantha. (Scrophulariaceae). Int. J. Plant Sci. 163(4):619-630.

Calero, A. & Santos, A. 1988: Biología reproductiva de especies amenazadas en la Flora Canaria. Lagascalia 15(suppl):661-666.

Campbell, K. & Donlan, C.J. 2005: Feral goat eradications on islands. Conserv. Biol. 19:1362-1374.

Collar, N.J. 1996: The reasons for Red Data Books. Oryx 30:121-130.

Davis, P.H., Mill, R.R. & Tan, K. 1988: Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, vol. 10. Edinburgh(UK): Edinburgh University Press.

Degtjareva, G.V., Kramina, T.E., Sokoloff, D.D., Samigullin, T.H., Valiejo-Roman, C.M. & Antonov, A.S. 2006: Phylogeny of the genus Lotus (Leguminosae, Loteae): Evidence from nrITS sequences and morphology. Canad. J. Bot. 84: 813–830.

Degtjareva, G.V., Kramina, T.E., Sokoloff, D.D., Samigullin, T.H., Sandral, G. & Valiejo-Roman, C.M. 2008: New data on nrITS phylogeny of Lotus (Leguminosae, Loteae). Wulfenia 15: 35–49

Dominguez, E. & Galiano, E.F. 1979: Revision del genero Tetragonolobus Scop. (Fabaceae). Lagascalia 8: 189–214.

Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Duman, H., Aytaç, Z. & Adıgüzel, N. 2000: Türkiye

Bitkileri Kırmızı Kitabı (Eğrelti ve Tohumlu Bitkiler). Ankara (TR): Publications of Association of Turkey's Nature Conservation.

Fenu, G., Mattana, E. & Bacchetta, G. 2011: Distribution, status and conservation of a Critically Endangered, extremely narrow endemic: Lamyropsis microcephala (Asteraceae) in Sardinia. Oryx 45(2):180-186.

Gizicki, S.Z. 2016: Effects of invasive goats (Capra hircus) on Mediterranean Island Communities [master’s thesis]. Michigan (US): University of Michigan.

Guidi, T. 2010: Le piante endemiche dell’Arcipelago Toscano. Valutazione della vulnerabilità [The endemic plants of the Tuscan Archipelago. Vulnerability assessment] [dissertation]. Ubaldo Montelatici (ITL): Università degli Studi di Firenze.

Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M. & Babaç, M.T. 2012: Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını. İstanbul, 1290 pp.

Işık, K. 2011: Rare and endemic species: why are they prone to extinction? Turk. J. Bot. 35:411-417.

IUCN. 2001: IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commision. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge (UK).

IUCN. 2012a: Habitats classification scheme (Version 3.1); [accessed 2019 Aug 08].

IUCN. 2012b: Threats classification scheme (Version 3.2.); [accessed 2018 Dec 15].

IUCN. 2012c: IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: version 3.1. Second Edition, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge (UK).

IUCN. 2012d: Research needed classification scheme v.2.0.; [accessed 2016 Apr 07].

IUCN. 2019: Guidelines for using the IUCN red list categories and criteria (Version 14). Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Subcommittee; [accessed 2019 Jul 09].

Jakobsson, A., Padro´n, B. & Traveset, A. 2008: Pollen transfer from invasive Carpobrotus spp. to natives – A study of pollinator behaviour and reproduction success. Biol. Conserv. 141:136-145.

Kocabaş, Y.Z. 2014: Türkiye’deki Dorycnıum Mıller. (Fabaceae) cinsinin revizyonu [Revision of the genus Dorycnium Miller. (Fabaceae) in Turkey] [dissertation]. Kahramanmaraş (TR): Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi.

Kozuharova, E.K. 2000: Entomophilous plant species inhabiting the southern limestone slopes of Mt. VitoS'a (SW Bulgaria) and their pollinators. FI. Medit. 10:227-234.

Mesa Coello, R., Ojeda Land, E. & Rodríguez Núñez, S. 2013: Dorycnium spectabile. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T162282A5568420. [accessed 2019 Sep 12].

Mullu, D. 2016: A Review on the effect of habitat fragmentation on ecosystem. J. Nat. Sci. Res. 6(15):2224-3186.

Olsvig-Whittaker, L., Frankenberg, E., Perevolotsky, A. & Ungar, D.E. 2006: Grazing, overgrazing and conservation: Changing concepts and practices in the Negev rangelands. Sécheresse 17(1-2):195-199.

Rikli, M. 1901: Die Gattung Dorycnium Mill. – Bot. Jahrb., 31: 314-404.

Sandral, G., Degtjareva, G.V., Kramina, T.E., Sokoloff, D.D., Samigullin, T.H., Hughes, S. & Valiejo-Roman, C.M. 2010: Are Lotus creticus and Lotus cytisoides (Leguminosae) closely related species? Evidence from nuclear ribosomal ITS sequence data. Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 57: 501–514

Talavera, S. & Salgueiro, F.J. 1999: Sobre el tratamiento de la familia Leguminosae en Flora Iberica. Lagascalia 21: 155–122.

Taubert, P.H.W. 1894: Leguminosae. In: Engler, A. & Prantl, K. (eds.), Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 3(3). Leipzig:Engelmann, pp. 70–385.

Trias-Blasi, A., Gücel, S. & Özden, Ö. 2016: Current distribution and conservation status reassessment of the Cyprus Tulip (Tulipa cypria: Liliaceae), new data from Northern Cyprus. Plant Biosyst. 151(3):394-402.

Vural, M. 1983: New taxa and records from Turkey (Dorycnium sanguineum Vural) in Notes R.B.G. Edinb. 41(1):67-69.

Vural, M., Akman, Y. & Quezel, P. 1999: Contribution a L’etude De La Vegetation Forestiere Du Taurus Central: Analyse Phyto-Ecologique D’un Transect Sud-Nord, Entre Silifke et Karaman, Fitosociologia, 36(1): 3-21.

How to Cite
Subaşi Ümit, ŞekercılerF. and VuralM. (2020) “Conservation assessment and action on Lotus sanguineus (Fabaceae), a critically endangered species endemic to Turkey”, Hacquetia, 19(2), pp. 307–315. Available at: (Accessed: 23July2021).