Conservation Assessment of a critically endangered and extremely local endemic medicinal plant Polygonum samsunicum (Polygonaceae) with emended description from Turkey


  • Fergan Karaer Flora research Association
  • Ferhat Celep
  • Ayşegül Celep
  • Güray H. Kutbay


endemic, IUCN assessment, Polygonum samsunicum, species conservation plan, Turkey


Polygonum samsunicum (Polygonaceae) is one of the endemic species from Turkey. Up to now, it has been only known from the type locality (Samsun /Ladik). This research intends to define the global conservation status and strategies of locally distributed endemic P. samsunicum which has been confronted with the danger of extinction due to anthropogenic effects in recent years. In this research, we did extensive field studies and collected all needed data for determining the precise conservation status of P. samsunicum. We reported nine additional populations from Upper Tersakan valley, where the Mediterranean climate is dominant, and the size of populations, altitude, coordinates, habitat types, and the threats it faces in each locality were given. GeoCAT analyses at global levels indicate the grade of occurrence 21.609 (ca. 22) km2 and area of occupancy 10.094 (ca. 10.1) km2 and there could be an inferred decline due to habitat loss and fragmentation of the original population, suggesting local endemic species might be classified as CR, based on criteria B1ab (i, ii, iii) + 2ab (i, ii, iii) in the Red List categorization. Its aerial parts are also consumed by local people due to its medicinal features. For in-situ conservation of the species, phenological life history and detailed ecological studies, as well as population monitoring and ex-situ conservation studies should be continued together. Establishing cooperation between universities, research institutes, and local management authorities is strongly needed for long-term monitoring of population size, distribution, overgrazing, and public awareness.


Download data is not yet available.


Akçakaya, R. (2016). Kirmizi liste siniflari ve ölçütleri (ver. 3.1). IUCN Library System. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from

Akman, Y. (1999). İklim ve biyoiklim. Kariyer Matbaacılık.

Anonymous, (1984). Samsun ili verimlilik envanteri ve gübre ihtiyaç raporu. T.C. Tarım Orman ve Köyişleri Bakanlığı Topraksu Genel Müdürlüğü Yayınları.

Anonymous, 2020: Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı, Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü, Samsun ili iklim verileri. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from

Bachman, S., Moat, J., Hill, A. W., de la Torre, J., & Scott, B. (2011). Supporting red list threat assessments with GeoCAT: Geospatial conservation assessment tool. ZooKeys, 150, 117–126.

Bernardos, S., Amado, A., & Amich, F. (2006). The narrow endemic Scrophularia valdesii Ortega-Olivencia & Devesa (Scrophulariaceae) in the Iberian Peninsula: An evaluation of its conservation status. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15, 4027–4043.

Celep, F., Aytaç, Z., & Karaer, F. (2006). Plant diversity and distribution in the Lower Tersakan Valley (Amasya-Turkey). Flora Mediterranea, 16, 295–332.

Celep, F., Doğan, M., & A. Kahraman, (2010). Re-evaluated conservation status of Salvia L. (sage) in Turkey I: The Mediterranean and the Aegean geographic regions. Turkish Journal of Botany, 34, 201–214.

Coode, M.J.E. & Cullen, J. (1967). Polygonum L. In Davis, P.H., Coode, M. J. E., & Cullen, J. (Eds.), The Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands (pp. 269–280). Edinburgh University Press.

Cui, X.Y., Wang, Y., Niu, H., Wu, J., Wang, S., Schnug, E., Rogasik, J., Fleckenstein, J., & Tang, Y. (2005). Effect of long-term grazing on soil organic carbon content in semiarid steppes in Inner Mongolia. Ecological Research, 20, 519–527.

Davis, P. H., Mill, R. R., & Tan, K. (1988). Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. Vol. 10 (suppl.). Edinburgh University Press.

Davis, P.H., Coode, M.J.E., & Cullen, J. (1965). Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. Vol.1., Edinburgh University Press.

Ekim, T., Koyuncu, M., Vural, M., Duman, H., Aytaç, Z. & Adıgüzel, N. (2000). Türkiye bitkileri kırmızı kitabı (Eğrelti ve Tohumlu Bitkiler). Turkish Association for the Conservation of Nature and Van 100.

Guidi, T. (2010). Le piante endemiche dell’Arcipelago Toscano. Valutazione della vulnerabilita. (The endemic plants of the Tuscan Archipelago. Vulnerability assessment). [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Universita degli Studi di Firenze.

Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M., & Babaç, M. T. (2012). Türkiye bitkileri listesi (Damarlı bitkiler). Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını.

Güner, A., Özhatay, N., Ekim, T., & Başer, K. H. C. (2000). Flora of Turkey and the Aegean islands, Vol. 11(suppl.). Edinburgh University Press.

Hanke, W., Böhner, J., Dreber, N., Jürgens, N., Schmiedel, U., Wesuls, D., & Dengler, J. (2014). The impact of livestock grazing on plant diversity: an analysis across dryland ecosystems and scales in southern. Africa. Ecological Applications, 24, 1188–1203.

Heywood, V. H. & Iriondo, J. M. (2003). Plant conservation: old problems, new perspectives. Biological Conservation, 113, 321–335.

Işık, K. (2011). Rare and endemic species: why are they prone to extinction? Turkish Journal of Botany, 35, 411–417.

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). (2012a). Habitat’s classification scheme (Version 3.1). IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). resources/ habitat- classification-scheme.

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2012b). Threat’s classification scheme (Version 3.2.). IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Dec_2012_.

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2012c). IUCN red list categories and criteria: version 3.1. Second edition, Gland.

IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) (2019). Guidelines for using the IUCN red list categories and criteria (Version 14). IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). https:// www. iucn resources/red list guidelines.

Karaer, F. (2003). Türkiye’nin önemli bitki alanları Akdağ (Amasya-Samsun) (OBA–31). In Özhatay, N. Byfield, B., & Atay, S. (Eds.), Türkiye’nin 122 önemli bitki alanı (ÖBA) (pp.30–31). WWF Türkiye (Doğal Hayatı Koruma Vakfı).

Karaer, F. (2013, October 23-25). Lâdik Gölü (Samsun) yüzen adalarinin bitki biyoçeşitliliği ve süksesyonu [Conference presentation abstract]. III. Sulak Alanlar Kongresi, Samsun, Turkey.

Karaer, F., Kilinc, M., & Kutbay, H. G. (1999). The woody vegetation of Kelkit Valley. Turkish Journal of Botany, 23, 319-344.

Karaer, F., Kılınç, M., Korkmaz, H., Kutbay, H. G., Yalçın, E., & Bilgin, A. (2010). Phytosociological and ecological structure of Mediterranean enclaves along the stream valleys in inner parts of Black Sea Region. Journal of Environmental Biology, 31, 33-50.

Karaer, F., Kutbay, H. G. & Kılınç, M. (1995, May 21-28). Phytosociological structure of Mediterranean enclaves occurring along the stream valleys in inner parts of Black Sea region [Conference presentation abstract]. 4th plant life of South-west Asia symposium, İzmir, Turkey.

Kaya, Z. & Raynal, D. J. (2001). Biodiversity and conservation of Turkish forests. Biological Conservation, 97, 131–141.

Keskin, M. (2009). Polygonum istanbulicum Keskin sp. nov. (Polygonaceae) from Turkey. - Nordic Journal of Botany, 27, 11–15.

Keskin, M. (2012). Polygonum L. In: Güner, A., Aslan, S., Ekim, T., Vural, M., & Babaç, M. T. (Eds.) Türkiye bitkileri listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler) (pp 758–761). Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi ve Flora Araştırmaları Derneği Yayını.

Kilinc, M. & Karaer, F. (1995). Sinop Yarimadasinin vejetasyonu. Turkish Journal of Botany, 19, 107-124.

Le Roux, J. J., Hui, C., Castillo, M. L., Iriondo, J. M., Keet, J. H., Khapugin, A. A., Medail, F., Rejmánek, M., Theron, G., Yannelli, F. A., & Hirsch, H. (2019). Recent anthropogenic plant extinctions differ in biodiversity hotspots and cold spots. Current Biology, 29, 2912‒2918.

López-Pujol, J., Zhang, F. M., & Ge, S. (2006). Plant biodiversity in China: richly varied, endangered and in need of conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 15, 3983–4026.

Mullu, D. (2016). A Review on the effect of habitat fragmentation on ecosystem. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, 6(15): 2224–3186.

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., Da Fonseca, G. A., & Kent, J. (2000). Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403(6772), 853-858.

Spampinato, G., Sciandrello, S., del Galdo, G., Puglisi, M., Tomaselli, V., Cannavò, S., & Musarella, C. M. (2019). Contribution to the knowledge of Mediterranean wetland biodiversity: Plant communities of the Aquila Lake (Calabria, Southern Italy). Plant Sociology, 56, 53‒68.

Su, R., Cheng, J., Chen, D., Bai, Y., Hua, J., Chao, L., Wang, Z., & Li, J. (2017). Effects of grazing on spatiotemporal variations in community structure and ecosystem function on the grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 40.

Subaşı, Ü., Şekerciler, F., & Vural, M. (2020). Conservation assessment and action on Lotus sanguineus (Fabaceae), a critically endangered endemic species to Turkey. Hacquetia, 19(2), 307–315.

Teaguea, W. R., Dowhower, S. L., Baker, S. A., Haile, N., De Launea, P. B., & Conover, D. M. 2011: Grazing management impacts on vegetation, soil biota and soil chemical, physical and hydrological properties in tall grass prairie. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 141(3-4), 310–322.

Thompson, J. D. (2020). Plant Evolution in the Mediterranean: Insights for Conservation. Oxford University Press.

Yıldırımlı, Ş. & Leblebici, E. (1989). Polygonum samsunicum (Polygonaceae), a new species from Turkey. Willdenowia, 19, 87–89.

Zohary M. (1973). Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East. Gustav Fischer Verlag.




How to Cite

Karaer, F., Celep, F., Celep, A., & Kutbay, G. H. (2021). Conservation Assessment of a critically endangered and extremely local endemic medicinal plant Polygonum samsunicum (Polygonaceae) with emended description from Turkey. Hacquetia, 21(1), 197–210. Retrieved from