Dekomunizacija nacionalnega pesnika: branje Eminescuja, Boteva in Petőfija po letu 1989

Cosmin Borza

Povzetek

Razprava poskuša pojasniti, zakaj demitiziranje – in ne mitiziranje – institucije »nacionalnega pesnika« natančneje in globlje ponazarja ideološke, kulturne in identitetne spremembe v postkomunistični vzhodni in srednji Evropi. Kot študije primerov v razpravi obravnavam kritično recepcijo treh nacionalnih pesnikov – Mihaija Eminescuja, Hrista Boteva in Sándorja Petőfija –, in sicer zato, ker je omenjeni pojav očitnejši v državah, kot so Romunija, Bolgarija in Madžarska, torej državah, ki svojo lastno identiteto razumejo predvsem skozi binarno opozicijo vzhod-zahod. Pokazati želim, da se demitiziranje nacionalnega pesnika dogaja zlasti po letu 1989, in v ta namen analiziram vrsto kritičnih in imagističnih obravnav Eminescuja, Boteva in Petőfija, ki jih je povzročilo dejstvo, da so antikomunistične, prozahodne intelektualne elite obravnavale kult nacionalnega pesnika kot simptom kulturne in ideološke zaostalosti, značilne za »necivilizirani« vzhod, ki ga je prizadela travma nacionalnega komunizma. Tako se na koncu izkaže, da je opuščanje nacionalnega mita Eminescu/Botev/Petőfi del širše tendence po »dekomunizaciji«, ki jo je s seboj prinesla kapitalistična tranzicija.

Ključne besede

literatura in ideologija; vzhodnosrednjeevropske književnosti; postkomunizem; nacionalni pesniki; demitizacija; Eminescu, Mihai; Botev, Hristo; Petőfi, Sándor

Celotno besedilo:

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