Funkcije socialističnega realizma: prevajanje žanrske literature v komunistični Romuniji

Ştefan Baghiu

Povzetek

Socialistični realizem pogosto razumemo kot pojav množične kulture, čeprav so njegovo dejansko strukturo usmerjenosti na množice uspele definirati le redke študije. Splošni pogled na literaturo pod socialističnim realizmom je, da gre za standardizirano pisanje in formulaičen žanr. Članek skuša analizirati žanrsko literaturo in literarne podžanre, prevajane v Romuniji v obdobju socialističnega realizma, da bi pridobili bolj celosten vpogled v družbene cilje in funkcije literature socialističnega realizma. Skladno z ideološkim programom Sovjetske zveze in njenega območja vpliva je prihajalo do številnih poskusov nadzora nad popularnimi in mladinskimi romani. Hkrati bi morala biti ta prizadevanja nasprotna/povezana z razvojem popularne literature v zahodnih kulturah, saj si ta dva nasprotna si kulturna sistema delita številne pomembne podobnosti: če upoštevamo, da so bili najbolj prevajani literarni avtorji v stalinističnem romunskem kulturnem sistemu Alexandre Dumas, Jack London in Mark Twain, se vrzel med zahodno in vzhodno popularno literaturo ne zdi več tako široka, četudi so njune funkcije različne.

Ključne besede

literatura in ideologija; socialistični realizem; Romunija; prevajanje; komunizem; žanrska literatura; Vzhodna Evropa; sovjetska literatura

Celotno besedilo:

PDF (English)

Literatura

Baghiu, Ștefan. “Strong Domination and Subtle Dispersion: A Distant Reading of Novel Translation in Communist Romania (1944–1989).” The Culture of Translation in Romania/Übersetzungskultur und Literaturübersetzen in Rumänien. Eds. Maria Sass, Ștefan Baghiu and Vlad Pojoga. Berlin: Peter Lang, 2018. 65–87.

Bourdieu, Pierre. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature. Ed. Randal Johnson. Cambridge: Polity, 1993.

Brennan, Timothy. “Homiletic Realism.” Negative Cosmopolitanism. Cultures and Politics of World Citizenship after Globalization. Eds. Edi Kent and Tomsky Terri. Chicago: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2017. 263–283.

Carleton, Greg. “Genre in Socialist Realism.” Slavic Review 53.4 (1994): 992–1009.

Clark, Katerina. The Soviet Novel. History as Ritual. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press, 1981.

Cohen, Margret. “Sentimental Communities.” The Literary Channel. The Inter-National Invention of the Novel. Eds. Margaret Cohen and Carolyn Dever. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002. 106–132.

Damrosch, David. “World Literature in a Postcanonical, Hypercanonical Age.” Comparative Literature in an Age of Globalization. Ed. Haun Saussy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. 43–53.

Dibattista, Maria, and Lucy McDiarmid, eds. High and Low Moderns. Literature and Culture, 1889–1939. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Dobrenko, Evgeny. “The Disaster of Middlebrow Taste, or, Who ‘Invented’ Socialist Realism?” Socialist Realism Without Shores. Eds. Thomas Lahuesn and Evgeny Dobrenko. Durham: Duke University Press, 1997. 135–165.

Goldiș, Alex. “Literary Interferences in Subversive East-European Prose under Communism.” The Culture of Translation in Romania/Übersetzungskultur und Literaturübersetzen in Rumänien. Eds. Maria Sass, Ștefan Baghiu and Vlad Pojoga. Berlin: Peter Lang, 2018. 85–99.

– – –. “Beyond Nation Building: Literary History as Transnational Geolocation.” Romanian Literature as World Literature. Eds: Mircea Martin, Christian Moraru and Andrei Terian. New York: Bloomsbury, 2018. 95–115.

– – –. Critica în tranșee. De la realismul socialist la autonomia esteticului. Bucharest: Cartea Românească, 2011.

Groys, Boris. The Total Art of Stalinism. Avant-Garde, Aesthetic Dictatorship, and Beyond. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992.

Iovănel, Mihai. Ideologiile literaturii în postcomunismul românesc. Bucharest: Muzeul Național al Literaturii Române, 2014.

Milner, Andrew. “Science Fiction and the Literary Field.” Science Fiction Studies 38.3 (2011): 393–411.

Moretti, Franco. “The Slaughterhouse of Literature.” Modern Language Quarterly 61.1 (2000): 207–227.

– – –. Canon/Archive. New York: N+1 Foundation, 2017.

Morson, Gary Saul. “Socialist Realism and Literary Theory.” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 38.2 (1979): 121–133.

Safiullina, Nailya. “The Canonization of Western Writers in the Soviet Union in the 1930s.” The Modern Language Review 107.2 (2012): 559–584.

Simion, Eugen (general ed.), Grigor Andrei (ed. 1944–1964) and Lucian Chișu (ed. 1965–1969). Cronologia vieții literare românești. Perioada postbelică: 1944–1969 (CVLR I–XVI). Bucharest: Muzeul Național al Literaturii Române, 2010–2018.

Smith, Jordan A. Y. “Translationscapes: On the Legibility of Transnational Ideologies in World Literary System.” Comparative Literature Studies 54.4 (2017): 749–770.

Suvin, Darko. Metamorphoses of Science Fiction. On the Poetics and History of a Literary Genre. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1979.

Terian, Andrei. “National Literature, World Literatures, and Universality in Romanian Cultural Criticism 1867–1947.” CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 15.5 (2013). Web. 22 December 2018.

Tertz, Abram (Andrei Sinyavsky). On Socialist Realism. New York: Pantheon Books, 1960.

Tsipursky, Gleb. Socialist Fun. Youth, Consumption, and State-Sponsored Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1945–1970. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2016.

Tucker, Frank H. “Soviet Science Fiction: Recent Development and Outlook.” Russian Review 33.2 (1974): 189–200.

Ursa, Mihaela. “Made in Translation: A National Poetics for the Transnational World.” Romanian Literature as World Literature. Eds. Mircea Martin, Christian Moraru and Andrei Terian. New York: Bloomsbury, 2018. 309–326.

Westfahl, Gary. Science Fiction, Children’s Literature, and Popular Culture: Coming of Age in Fantasyland. Westport, Connecticut and London: Greenwood Press, 2000.