Kritično k popustljivosti in panopticizmu: viktorijanski zapor v neoviktorijanski prozi ter v Nadzorovanju in kaznovanju

Danijela Petković

Povzetek

Članek analizira romana Morska zvezda Josepha O’Connorja (2002) in Naklonjenost Sarah Waters (1999) v sklopu prikaza viktorijanskega zapora – nasproti Foucaultu – kot prostora telesnega kaznovanja in mučenja. Romana in članek viktorijanski zapor umeščajo v diskurze 19. stoletja, ki že predvidevajo napredovanje, izboljšanje oziroma spreminjanje zapornika, a obenem poudarjajo tudi kaznovalne in sadistične vidike teh naglo rastočih ustanov. S podrobno prostorsko organizacijo, arhitektoniko nadzorovanja in medosebno dinamiko moči med pazniki in priprtimi Morska zvezda in Naklonjenost vzpostavljata distanco do domnevne humanosti zaporne kazni kot netelesnega, reformiranega in reformirajočega tipa kaznovanja ter tako kot Nadzorovanje in kaznovanje zavračata hvalospev tedanji zakonodaji. A romana poleg tega problematizirata tudi Foucaultovo pojmovanje zapora kot modela disciplinarnih družb. V sklicevanju na sodobne raziskave viktorijanske penologije in zaporov ter na poročila o zaporniškem življenju iz 19. stoletja romana demonstrirata, da je obsojence in državljane bolj kot ponotranjena zavest o nadzorovanju discipliniralo monopolizirano nasilje zaporov oziroma grožnja z njim.

Ključne besede

literatura in družba; angleška književnost; irska književnost; O’Connor, Joseph; Waters, Sarah; viktorijanska doba; Foucault, Michel; telo; kaznovanje; zapor

Celotno besedilo:

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