Kako biti tujec: antropologija emigracije Georgea Mikesa

Sándor Hites

Povzetek

Članek obravnava satirično uspešnico How to Be an Alien (1946), ki jo je napisal madžarski emigrantski novinar in prominenten britanski humorist George Mikes (1912–1987). Izkaže se, da Mikes pri obravnavi vprašanj emigracije, integracije in pripadanja uporabi karikiran antropološki pristop. S tem, ko ironično predela koncepte opazovanja in imitiranja (domorodcev) kot preživetvene strategije, imenitno opozori na absurdnost tako britanskega življenja kot tudi prizadevanj prišleka, da bi se stopil z okoljem. Nadaljevanji uspešnice, ki ju je Mikes napisal desetletja pozneje, razkrivata, da tudi ko je »tujec« enkrat uspešno integriran, občutek pridobljene britanskosti proizvaja le še nadaljnje absurdnosti. Podrobnejši pogled pokaže, da je Mikesevo satiro mogoče videti tudi kot doslej neopažen prispevek k moderni filozofski tradiciji »tujosti« (npr. pri avtorjih, kot so G. Simmel, H. Arendt, Th. Adorno in Z. Bauman). Mikeseva zapuščina še vedno navdihuje izseljence v Londonu, pa tudi drugje. Toda to emblematično delo je navdihnilo tudi vrsto knjig z diametralno nasprotnim namenom – namreč takšnih, ki opogumljajo (domače) bralce, naj se vnovič oprimejo dozdevno pešajoče socio-kulturne dediščine. V transformiranju Mikeseve satire o tujcih, ki se prilagajajo novemu okolju, v opogumljanje »domačinov«, naj se vendar oklenejo lastne tradicije, se obenem zrcalita tako dezintegracija tradicionalne kulturne pripadnosti kot tudi nova privlačnost »domorodnosti«.

Ključne besede

angleška književnost; satira; intelektualci; emigracija; Vzhodna Evropa; Madžarska; Mikes, George: How to Be an Alien; nacionalni stereotipi; tujost

Celotno besedilo:

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