Negativna hermenevtika in pojem literarne vede

Francisco Serra Lopes

Povzetek

Spreminjajoči se pomeni negativnosti v kontekstu interpretativnih praks izražajo različne ali celo divergentne hevristične strategije, ki se dvoumno imenujejo »negativna hermenevtika«. Izraz je leta 1965 uporabil Paul Ricoeur, ko je Nietzschejevega Zaratustro obtožil upora proti krščanstvu, zaradi katerega je manj pomemben od pravega preroka. V zgodnjih sedemdesetih letih je Fredric Jameson na marksističen način uporabil razliko med pozitivno in negativno hermenevtiko, pri čemer je zadnjo sekulariziral in oplemenitil sum kot strategijo za razkritje ideologije, čeprav je zagovarjal njuno istočasno uporabo. Na Jamesona sta vplivala Hegel (subjekt sive negativnost) in Adorno (tvegana izbira besed in negativne dialektike). Ne moremo zagotovo vedeti, ali Heglov koncept negativnega določa želja po razumevanju subjekta kot negativnosti prek tega, kar bi Bloom imenoval namerna napačna razlaga negativne teologije. Treba pa je opozoriti, da se pri Heglu koncepti in stvari, na katere se ti koncepti nanašajo, bistveno razlikujejo in edina možnost njihove identifikacije je medsebojna negacija, kar pomeni, da so njihove identitete pravzaprav negativnosti. Negacija zato neizbežno spodkopava pozitivnost razuma. Neoplatonski prizvoki Heglovega razumevanja negativnosti lahko tako zakrijejo sporočilo apofatičnega misticizma v njegovih besedilih. Semiotični asketizem negativne teologije se je občasno slavil kot manihejsko sprejetje zla ali »nepravilnosti« v jeziku, ki ga najdemo v Bloomovi »napačni razlagi«, Foucaultovi »hermenevtiki nevedenja« (po mnenju Johna Caputa), Derridajevi »différance« itd. Po Heideggerjevi študiji »resnice« kot konfliktnega pojma je Wolfgang Iser (recepcijska teorija) trdil, da negativnost ni nekaj, kar moramo premagati, ampak je, kot je nedavno izjavil tudi Nicholas Davey, prej značilnost pomena, bistven za – in ki zahteva – samospoznanje: negativna hermenevtika neomarksističnih teoretikov se idejno na novo interpretira prek krščanske eksegeze.

Ključne besede

literarna veda; literarna interpretacija; hermenevtika

Celotno besedilo:

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