Understanding the implications of spatial segregation in Belfast, Northern Ireland // Razumevanje posledic prostorske segregacije v Belfastu na Severnem Irskem

Peter Kumer, Marko Krevs

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3986/GV87204


The conflict in Belfast that revolves around identity and territory has strong spatial implications. This paper seeks to identify the drivers that promote spatial segregation within the city. The drivers are identified through recent research based on semi-structural interviews with members of the Catholic and Protestant communities, in-depth interviews with decision-makers, and a cartographic analysis of the contested areas. This study aims to provide recommendations to support the spatial integration of both communities and their reconciliation process.

Belfastski konflikt, ki je povezan z identiteto in teritorijem, pušča pomembne posledice v prostoru. Prispevek obravnava dejavnike (gonilne sile), ki spodbujajo prostorsko segregacijo v mestu. Dejavniki so bili prepoznani na podlagi polstrukturiranih intervjujev, opravljenih s predstavniki katoliške in protestantske skupnosti, poglobljenih intervjujev z odločevalci in kartografske analize konfliktnih območij. Cilj raziskave je priprava predlogov za podporo prostorske integracije sprtih skupnosti in njune poti k spravi.


political geography; spatial segregation; territoriality; interface community; cross community; reconciliation; Belfast; Northern Ireland // politična geografija; prostorska segregacija; teritorialnost; skupnost ob pregradah; medetnično povezovanje; sprava; Belfast; Severna Irska

Full Text:



Archivk, K. 2013: Northern Ireland. The Peace Process. Congressional Research Service, Report for Congress. Medmrežje: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RS21333.pdf (12. 1. 2014).

Approaches to Creative Placemaking, 2013. Medmrežje: http://www.artscapediy.org/Creative-Placemaking/Approaches-to-Creative-Placemaking.aspx (12. 1. 2014).

Boal, F. W. 1969: Territoriality on the Shankill-Falls Divide, Belfast. Irish Geography 6-1. Dublin. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00750776909555645

Boal, F. W. 1976: Ethnic residential segregation. Social Areas in Cities I: Spatial Processes and Form. London.

Boal, F. W. 1987: Segregation. Social Geography, Progress and Prospect. London.

Bryan, D. 2003: Belfast. Urban space, “policing” and sectarian polarization. Wounded Cities. Destruction and Reconstruction in a Globalized World. Oxford. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5040/9781474215985.ch-012

Bryan, D., Stevenson, C. 2009: Flagging peace. Struggles over symbolic landscape in the new Northern Ireland. Culture and belonging in divided Societies. Contestation and Symbolic Landscapes. Philadelphia.

Byrne, J. Heenan, C. G., Robinson, G. 2012: Attitudes to Peace Walls. Research Report to Office of First Minister and Deputy First Minister. Belfast.

Cairns, D. 2000: The object of sectarianism: The material reality of sectarianism in Ulster Loyalism. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 6-3. Cambridge. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9655.00025

Darby, J. 1986: Intimidation and the Control of Conflict in Northern Ireland. Dublin.

Darby, J. 2003: Northern Ireland: The background to the Peace Process. CAIN. Medmrežje: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/peace/darby03.htm (1. 3. 2015).

Doherty, P., Poole, M. A., 1995: Ethnic Residential Segregation in Belfast. Coleraine.

Feldman, A. 1991: Formations of violence. The Narrative of the Body and Political Terror in Northern Ireland. Chicago.

Fitzduff, M., O'Hagan, L. 2009: The Northern Ireland Troubles. INCORE background paper. CAIN. Medmrežje: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/othelem/incorepaper09.htm (12. 1. 2014).

Frost-Kumpf, H. A. 1998: Cultural districts. The Arts as a Strategy for Revitalizing our Cities Americans for the Arts. Springfield.

Hamilton, M., Jarman, N., Bryan, D. 2001: Parades, protests and policing. A Human Rights Framework. Belfast.

Hepburn, A. C., Collins, B. 1981: Industrial society. The structure of Belfast, 1901. Plantation to Partition. Belfast.

Jones, E. 1956: The Distribution and segregation of Roman Catholics in Belfast. Sociological Review 4-2. Malden. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954x.1911.tb02131.x

Kempny, M. 2013: Tales from the borderlands. Polish migrants’ representations of the Northern Irish conflict in Belfast. Space and Culture 16-4. Thousand Oaks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1206331212452818

Krevs, M. 2004: Perceptual spatial differentiation of Ljubljana. Dela 21. Ljubljana. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4312/dela.21.32.371-379

Kumer, P. 2013: Socialno-geografske posledice prostorske segregacije v Belfastu (Socio-geographic effects of the spatial segregation in Belfast). B. Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. Ljubljana.

Lysaght, K., Basten, A. 2003: Violence, fear and the everyday: Negotiating spatial practices in the city of Belfast. The Meaning of Violence. London.

Markusen, A., Gadwa, A. 2010a: Arts and culture in urban or regional planning: A review and research agenda. Journal of Planning Education and Research 29-3. Thousand Oaks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739456x09354380

Markusen, A., Gadwa, A. 2010b: Creative Placemaking. Washington.

McEvoy, S. 2000: Communities and peace: Catholic youth in Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Research 37-1. London. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022343300037001005

McNair, D. A. 2006: Social and Spatial Segregation: Ethno-National Separation and Mixing. Ph. D. Thesis. Queen's University of Belfast. Belfast.

Melaugh, M. 2006: The Irish Peace Process: Summary. CAIN. Medmrežje: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/peace/sum.htm (12. 1. 2014).

Melaugh, M. 2012: Draft List of Death Related to the Conflict from 2002 to the Present. CAIN. Medmrežje: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/issues/violence/deathsfrom2002draft.htm (12. 1. 2014).

Murray, R. Boal, F.W. 1979: The Social Ecology of Urban Violence. Social Problems and the City: Geographical Perspectives. Oxford.

Murtagh, B. 2002: The Politics of Territory. Wiltshire. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781403920133

Nagle, J. 2013: Nationalism in the news. Blowing the wind: The politics of recognition and the Belfast flag conflict. The Ruritarian for ASEAN 2013 2-3. Belfast.

NIMDM – Northern Ireland Multiple Deprivation Measure, 2010. Medmrežje: http://www.nisra.gov.uk/deprivation/archive/Updateof2005Measures/NIMDM_2010_Report.pdf (1. 2. 2013).

NINIS – Northern Ireland Neighbourhood Information Service, 2013. Medmrežje: http://www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk/public/Home.aspx (1. 2. 2013).

NISRA – Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, 2013. Medmrežje: http://www.nisra.gov.uk/ (28. 1. 2013).

Northern Ireland Profile. BBC Online, 2012. Medmrežje: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/4172307.stm (12. 1. 2014).

O'Halloran, C. 2012: Belfast interfaces. Security Barriers and Defensive Use of Space. Belfast.

Parades Commission. FAQ, 2014. Medmrežje: http://www.paradescommission.org/frequently-asked-questions/ (12. 1. 2014).

Plöger, J. 2007: Belfast City Report. Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion. London.

Shirlow. P., Pino, N. W., Ellison, G. 2012: Assessing the determinants of public confidence in the police: A case study of a post-conflict community in Northern Ireland. Criminology and Criminal Justice 13-5. London. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1748895812462597

Shirlow, P., Murtagh, B. 2006: Belfast. Segregation, Violence and the City. London.

Shuttleworth, I., Lloyd, C., 2006. Mapping Segregation in Northern Ireland. Belfast.

Simone-Charteris, M., Boyd, S. W. 2011: The potential for Northern Ireland to promote politico-religious tourism: An industry perspective. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management 20, 3-4. Philadelphia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2011.562438

Soja, E. W. 1971: The political organization of space. Resource Paper 8. Washington.

Villiers, T. 2012: Northern Ireland Peace Process. Medmrežje: http://www.politics.co.uk/reference/northern-ireland-peace-process (1. 1. 2015).

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3986/GV87204


  • There are currently no refbacks.

© Geografski vestnik - Geographical Bulletin | Zveza geografov Slovenije, P.B. 306, SI-1001 Ljubljana, Slovenia | gv@zrc-sazu.si | tel: +386 1 470 63 48 | fax: +382 1 425 77 93