12 let (2005-2017) raziskovalnega in strokovnega dela na področju zatiranja skladiščnih škodljivcev v Sloveniji / Twelve years (2005-2017) of scientific and professional work in the field of stored products pests protection in Slovenia

Stanislav Trdan, Tanja Bohinc

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/fbg0058

Abstract

IZVLEČEK

Začetki  poglobljenega znanstvenega in strokovnega dela na področju zatiranja skladiščnih škodljivcev v Sloveniji segajo v leto 2005, ko smo v okviru raziskav na področju preučevanja učinkovitosti entomopatogenih ogorčic v laboratorijskih razmerah ugotavljali njihovo delovanje na črnega žitnega žužka (Sitophilus granarius) in surinamskega mokarja (Oryzaephilus surinamensis). Leta 2007 smo bili povabljeni kot partnerji v projekt SEE-ERA.NET Development of a non-toxic, ecologically compatible, natural-resource based insecticide from diatomaceous earth deposits of South Eastern Europe to control stored-grain insect spests, kjer smo se pod koordinatorstvom C. Athanassiou-a prvič seznanili z raziskovalnim delom na področju preučevanja učinkovitosti diatomejske zemlje na hrošče iz rodu Sitophilus. Različne aspekte raziskav na področju diatomejske zemlje (vpliv geokemične sestave in abiotičnih dejavnikov na njeno učinkovitost, učinkovitost samostojne in kombinirane uporabe, delovanje na različne vrste škodljivcev idr.) smo ohranili do danes. Z namenom primerjave učinkovitosti z diatomejsko zemljo smo na različnih škodljivih hroščih preučevali insekticidno delovanje kremenovega peska in entomopatogenih ogorčic iz Slovenije, rastlinskega praha in eteričnih olj, v zadnjih letih pa v tej zvezi največ časa namenjamo lesnemu pepelu in zeolitom, ki kažejo zadovoljivo delovanje pri zatiranju hroščev iz rodu Sitophilus. V navedenem obdobju smo preučili sezonsko dinamiko krhljevega molja (Plodia interpunctella), močne vešče (Ephestia kuehniella) in koruznega molja (Sitotroga cerealella) v skladiščih žita, kjer smo iskali tudi morebitne domorodne naravne sovražnike skladiščnih škodljivcev. Našli smo parazitoida Anisopteromalus calandrae in Dibrachys microgastri. Leta 2017 smo bili organizatorji 11th Conference of the IOBC/wprs Working Group on Integrated Protection of Stored Products (Ljubljana, 3.-5. julij), ki se je je udeležilo 136 udeležencev iz 25 držav, tudi domačo strokovno javnost pa izobražujemo o škodljivosti in možnih načinih zatiranja skladiščnih škodljivcev. V tej zvezi smo leta 2014 organizirali delavnico »Od tehnološke zrelosti do skladiščenja žit in stročnic«, leta 2015 pa smo v okviru 12. Slovenskega posvetovanja o varstvu rastlin z mednarodno udeležbo na Ptuju gostili C. Athanassiou-a kot vabljenega predavatelja. V zadnjih letih v sodelovanju s strokovnjaki iz drugih držav preučujemo tudi delovanje okoljsko sprejemljivejših insekticidov (spinosad, spinetoram) in vpliv tehnologij pridelave žita na njegovo občutljivost na napad škodljivih hroščev iz rodu Sitophilus, sodelujemo pa tudi pri preučevanju učinkovitosti novih formulacij insekticidnih pripravkov. V prispevku bo podana kronologija aktivnosti na navedenem področju našega dela.

Ključne besede: skladiščni škodljivci, Slovenija, raziskovalno delo, strokovno delo

 

ABSTRACT

Scientific and professional work in the field of stored products pests protection in Slovenia began in 2005, when we tested the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and the sawtoothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis) adults under laboratory conditions. In 2007, we participated as partners in the project SEE-ERA.NET “Development of a non-toxic, ecologically compatible, natural-resource based insecticide from diatomaceous earth deposits of South Eastern Europe to control stored-grain insects pests” (coordinated by C. Athanassiou), and we thus became acquainted with the research work in the field of investigation the efficacy of diatomaceous earth in controlling beetles from the Sitophilus genus. We have continued the research of different aspects of diatomaceous earth (the influence of geochemical composition and abiotic factors on its efficiency, the effects of individual and combined application, the effects on various harmful insect pests, etc.). In search for comparable substances to diatomaceous earth (regarding the efficacy), we have studied insecticidal effects of quartz sand and entomopathogenic nematodes from Slovenia, plant powders and essential oils on various harmful beetles. In the recent years, our research work has been mainly dedicated to studying the efficacy of wood ash and zeolites as natural insecticides, which have demonstrated sufficient efficiency in suppressing Sitophilus beetles.  In the same period, we studied the seasonal dynamics of the Indian mealmoth (Plodia interpunctella), the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella) and the Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) in cereal stores, where we were also searching for possible indigenious  natural enemies of stored product insects pests. We have confirmed the occurrence of two parasitoids, Anisopteromalus calandrae and Dibrachys microgastri. In 2017, we have organized the 11th Conference of the IOBC/wprs Working Group on Integrated Protection of Stored Products (Ljubljana, 3-5 July), which was attended by 136 participants from 25 countries. We also transfer knowledge to Slovenian agricultural specialists about the harmfulness and possible ways of controlling stored products insects pests. In 2014, we have organized a workshop on this topic (“From Technological Maturity to Storing of Cereals and Legumes“).  In 2015, we have hosted C. Athanassiou as an invited lecturer at the 12th Slovenian Conference on Plant Protection with international participation in Ptuj. In recent years, we have been working with experts from other countries with the aim of studying the efficacy of environmentally acceptable insecticides (spinosad, spinetoram) and the influence of cereal production technologies on grains’ susceptibility to attack by Sitophilus beetles. Furthermore, we participate in the research regarding the efficiency of new formulations of insecticidal preparations. The paper presents the chronology of activities in this area of our work. 

Keywords: stored products pests, Slovenia, scientific work, professional work

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/fbg0058

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