Phytosociological description of sites of Salvia hispanica L. (Lamiaceae) on riverine gravel terraces in western Slovenia / Fitocenološki opis rastišč vrste Salvia hispanica (Lamia­ceae) na prodiščih v zahodni Sloveniji

Igor Dakskobler, Urban Šilc, Branko Vreš

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/fbg0053

Abstract

Abstract

In late summer and autumn (late August, beginning of November) of 2018 we observed a mass occurrence (more than 500 specimens) of Salvia hispanica, commonly known as chia, on gravel bars of several rivers in western Slovenia (the Soča and the Sava river basins). It was blooming on many sites in the first half of November, but low daily temperatures in the second half of the month prevented seed development. This Central-American (Mexico, Guatemala) species, which is distributed as a crop also outside its native range, grew mainly in initial plant communities of riverine gravel terraces classified into associations Polygono lapathifoliae-Salicetum eleagni(described as new),Chaerophyllo-Petasitetum officinalisand Bidenti frondosae-Panicetum barbipulvinati nom. prov. The dominating species in these associations are perennials or hemicryptophytes (50%) and annual plants – therophytes (32%). The proportion of alien species (neophytes) is 22% and the proportion of species originating in America is 10%. The warmer climate with less precipitation and less frequent high waters in the last decade, combined with the fact that chia seeds are a commercially available food product or an ingredient in various foods (nutrients), increases the likelihood of successful seed production in chia plants and their distribution in nature. The threat of Salvia hispanicabecoming an invasive species is therefore serious.

Key words: Chia, alien (adventive) species, plant communites, riverine gravel terraces, syntaxonomy, Slovenia 

 

Izvleček

V poznem poletju in v jeseni (druga polovica avgusta-prva polovica novembra 2018) smo na prodiščih nekaterih rek v zahodni Sloveniji (povodji Soče in Save) ugotovili množično pojavljanje vrste Salvia hispanica, poznamo jo pod imenom čija (skupno več kot 500 primerkov). Na precej nahajališčih je v prvi polovici novembra tudi cvetela, razvoj semen pa zaradi bolj hladnih dni v drugi polovici tega meseca ni bil več mogoč. Srednjeameriška vrsta (Mehika, Gvatemala), ki je kot kulturna rastlina že precej razširjena tudi zunaj svoje domovine, je rasla predvsem v inicialnih združbah prodišč, ki jih uvrščamo v asociacije Polygono lapathifoliae-Salicetum eleagni(opisali smo jo kot novo),Chaerophyllo-Petasitetum officinalisinBidenti frondosae-Panicetum barbipulvinati nom. prov. V njih ob trajnicah oz. hemikriptofitih (50 %) prevladujejo enoletnice – terofiti (32 %). Delež tujerodnih vrst (neofitov) je 22 %, delež vrst, ki so doma v Ameriki, pa 10 %. Zaradi toplejšega podnebja z manj padavinami in redkejšimi visokimi vodami v zadnjem desetletju in ker so semena čije v prosti prodaji ali kot sestavina različnih živil (hranil), je večja možnost za uspešno semenitev rastlin in njeno širjenje v naravi. Obstaja resna nevarnost, da bo vrsta Salvia hispanicav prihodnjih letih postala invazivka. 

Ključne besede: čija, tujerodne vrste, prodišča, rastlinske združbe, Slovenija

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/fbg0053

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