History and biology of the «black proteus« (Proteus anguinus parkelj Sket & Arntzen 1994; Amphibia: Proteidae): a review / Zgodovina in biologija črnega močerila (Proteus anguinus parkelj Sket & Arntzen 1994; Amphibia: Proteidae): pregledni članek

Lilijana Bizjak Mali, Boris Sket

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/fbg0049

Abstract

Abstract

Proteus anguinus parkeljSket & Arntzen 1994 is a black pigmented with developed eyes, non-troglomorphic, but yet troglobiotic subspecies of P. anguinus Laurenti 1786. It is endemic to the karst of Bela krajina in southeast Slovenia. As a probable mimic of the epigean ancestor it is very informative regarding adaptation to subterranean environment. Since it was discovered only in 1986, relatively little is known about its biology. The purpose of this review paper is to summarize the published data about the circumstances of its discovery, its distribution, phylogeny, taxonomy and its biology, including environmental threats, conservation status, and actions that are being taken to ensure its survival. The exceedingly limited distribution of the black proteus makes it particularly vulnerable. It is endangered by environmental pollution as well as by various potential pathogens that are of global concern to amphibians. Populations of the black proteus are in dire need of protection if they are to survive in their own natural habitat.

Key words:Proteus anguinus parkelj, discovery, distribution, phylogeny, morphology, threats

 

Izvleček

Črni močeril Proteus anguinus parkeljSket & Arntzen 1994 je temno pigmentirana podvrsta človeške ribice P. anguinusLaurenti 1786. Ni troglomorf, ima razvite oči, vendar je troglobiont. Je endemit belokranjskega krasa v JV Sloveniji in verjetno spominja na površinskega prednika. Zato je zelo informativen pri raziskavah adaptacij na življenje v podzemlju. Ker je bil odkrit šele leta 1986, je o njegovi biologiji znanega relativno malo. Namen tega preglednega članka je povzeti objavljene podatke o okoliščinah njegovega odkritja, geografski razširjenosti, filogeniji, taksonomiji in biologiji, vključno z okoljskimi grožnjami, varstvenim statusom in ukrepi za zagotovljanje njegovega preživetja. Zaradi izredno omejene razširjenosti je črni proteus še posebej ranljiva rasa. Ogroža ga onesnaževanje okolja, kot tudi različni potencialni patogeni, ki ogrožajo dvoživke po vsem svetu. Črni proteus potrebuje zaščito in varstveni status, če ga želimo ohraniti v njegovem naravnem habitatu.

Ključne besede:Proteus anguinus parkelj, odkritje, razširjenost, filogenija, morfologija, ogroženost 

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/fbg0049

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