Cultivable bacterial microbiota from choanae of free-living birds captured in Slovenia / Kultivabilna bakterijska mikrobiota iz sapišč prosto¬živečih ptic, ujetih v Sloveniji

Jure Škaraban, Tjaša Matjašič, Franc Janžekovič, Gottfried Wilharm, Janja Trček

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/fbg0024

Abstract

We have analysed the structure of cultivable choanal microbiota from free-living birds in relation to bird diet, its richness and the relative number of opportunistic bacteria acquired from the environment. For this purpose, we have taken choanal swabs from 25 free-living birds representing 13 different bird species captured in Slovenia. From the grown cultures, 98 bacterial colonies were isolated and their 16S rRNA genes sequenced. Most of the bacteria belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria (52 %), Proteobacteria (31 %), Firmicutes (15 %) and Bacteroidetes (4 %). Thirty-two percent of sampled birds were colonized by known human opportunists and 44 % of birds by at least one known plant pathogen. Hierarchical clustering of the analyzed microbiota grouped the birds according to their predominant diet. The richness of choanal microbiota from birds feeding mainly on insects was poorer compared to the birds feeding on diverse animal and plant material. The study has shown that the free-living birds carry an important reservoir of opportunistic human and plant pathogenic bacteria in their upper respiratory tract. To get a deeper insight into its composition, a bigger pool of birds will have to be analyzed in the future.

Keywords: birds, microbiota, choanae, pathogenic bacteria, diet

 

Sestavo kultivabilne bakterijske mikrobiote v sapiščih prostoživečih ptic smo analizirali z vidika vpliva prehrane, bogatosti mikrobiote in prisotnosti oportunističnih bakterij. Petindvajsetim prostoživečim pticam, ki so bile ujete v Sloveniji in so pripadale 13 vrstam, smo odvzeli bris sapišča. Po nacepitvi brisov na mikrobiološka gojišča in gojenju, smo izolirali 98 bakterijskih kolonij in jim določili nukleotidno zaporedje gena za 16S rRNK.  Večina izoliranih bakterij je pripadala deblu Actinobacteria (52 %), Proteobacteria (31 %), Firmicutes (15 %) in Bacteroidetes (4 %). Pri približno eni tretjini ptic (32 %) smo iz sapišča izolirali vsaj eno oportunistično bakterijsko vrsto, ki lahko povzroča okužbe pri ljudeh. Pri slabi polovici ptic (44 %) pa smo v sapišču našli vsaj eno bakterijsko vrsto, ki lahko okuži rastline. Z metodo hierarhičnega združevanja smo pokazali, da imajo ptice s podobno prehrano, podobno bakterijsko mikrobioto sapišč. Ptice, ki se prehranjujejo pretežno z žuželkami so imele manj bogato mikrobioto kot ptice, ki se prehranjujejo z bolj raznoliko živalsko in rastlinsko hrano. Raziskava je tudi pokazala, da so zgornja dihala prostoživečih ptic pomemben rezervoar oportunističnih bakterij, ki lahko okužijo ljudi in rastline. Da bi dobili globji vpogled v sestavo mikrobiote zgornjih dihal, bi v prihodnosti morali povečati število analiziranih ptic.

Ključne besede: ptice, mikrobiota, sapišče, patogene bakterije, prehrana

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/fbg0024

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